In ancient China, there has always been a tradition of”thick burial” . Under the influence of this tradition, the tombs of dignitaries and dignitaries in ancient times often contained a considerable amount of funerary objects, but the most fortune in the tombs is the tombs of the emperors. It is precisely because the most treasures are hidden in the emperor’s tombs in the past dynasties, so the robbing of the emperor’s tombs is naturally indispensable. Most of the emperor’s mausoleums of the Han and Tang dynasties that we are familiar with have been stolen many times in ancient times. For example, the Maoling of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty was stolen on a large scale, and there was a Han Dynasty Red Eyebrow Army, Dong Zhuo and Huang Chao of the Tang Dynasty three times.
but In the preservation of the tombs of the emperors in the past, there is a phenomenon that is very intriguing. This is the Ming and Qing Dynasties, The imperial tombs of the Qing Dynasty were severely damaged by looting, while the imperial tombs of the Ming Dynasty are relatively well-preserved. So, what causes this?
Above_ Zhu Yuanzhang’s Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum
Before analyzing the reasons, we must first analyze the The Royal Tomb is an explanation.
Ming In addition to the imperial tombs of Zhu Yuanzhang’s parents and ancestors, the ancestral tombs, and the Xian tombs of Emperor Jiajing’s biological father Xingxian, Ming Emperor The main part of the mausoleum is the Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum of Ming Taizu Zhu Yuanzhang, the Prince Zhu Ming Dongling and Beijing’s Ming The Ming Tombs are composed. Ming Tomb only The Siling of Emperor Chongzhen was robbed and excavated, and the rest are well preserved (the reason for the theft of Chongling will be discussed later).
and In sharp contrast with the Ming Tombs is the Qing Dynasty emperor’s tombs. Qingling Tombs In addition to the tombs outside the Guanwai, the main part is Qing Dong Tomb and Qing Xi Tomb Among them, the five emperors and fifteen empresses were buried in the eastern mausoleum of the Qing Dynasty, and the four emperors and three empresses were buried in the western mausoleum of the Qing Dynasty. In addition to Shunzhi Emperor’s Except Xiaoling Mausoleum, almost all the tombs of empresses including Kangxi, Qianlong and Empress Dowager Cixi were stolen, Xiling Emperor Guangxu’s Chongling and many concubine tombs were also stolen.
Ming The reason why the imperial tombs of the Qing dynasty are so different in terms of their preservation is mainly due to the following four points:
Above_ Ming Dingling is the thirteenth Emperor Shenzong Xian Emperor of the Ming DynastyZhu Yijunclass="candidate-entity-word" data-gid="6897676" qid="6542093006017697028">Zhu Yijunclass="candidate-entity-word" data-gid="6897676" qid="6542093006017697028"> span>The mausoleum of (year number Wanli)
1. architecture level and layout design
Ming The architectural level of the Mausoleum is higher than that of the Qing Mausoleum. As far as the depth of the underground palace is concerned, the underground palace of the Ming Tomb is deeper. For example, the Dingling underground palace of Emperor Shenzong Wanli of Ming Dynasty is 27 meters underground. Moreover, although the Mingling Underground Palace is also on the central axis, the design of the underground palace entrance is tortuous. Theoretically, the entrance may appear at any point of the circular earth-sealing treasure wall, which brings a lot to the search for the underground palace. The difficulty. For example, after the founding of the People’s Republic of China, he tried to excavate Ming Chengzu’s Changling. After working for a long time, there was no entrance to the underground palace. turn up. Later, when the Dingling Tomb was excavated, it was forced to start from the central axis, and only entered the underground palace several months later. The difficulty of excavating the Ming Tombs can be seen to be average.
Above_ Silk excavated from Mingdingling
Compared with Ming Tombs, the depth of the underground palace is shallower, only About nine meters, it is easy to dig. And the most deadly thing is that the Qingling Underground Palace and the entrance tomb passage are all on a central axis, going straight back and forth. The underground palace entrance is under the shadow wall in the dumb courtyard after the Fangcheng Ming Building on the ground. When Sun Dianying robbed the Qing Tomb, it was precisely because of this that he was able to quickly rob Dingdong Mausoleum of Cixi, Yuling Mausoleum of Qianlong and many concubine tombs.
Previous It is mentioned that in the Ming Tombs Chongzhen the emperor’s Siling was stolen and excavated because of Chongzhen’s reign At that time, the”good land” (the so-called geomantic treasure) was not found and the mausoleum was not repaired in time. So until Li Zicheng captured Beijing, there was no emperor’s tomb for his burial after Chongzhen’s death, so Li Zicheng buried him in In the tomb of Chongzhen’s pet concubine Tian Guifei. Therefore, according to regulations, the tomb of Chongzhen is a concubine’s tomb, which is far inferior to the imperial tomb in terms of architecture and design, and it is conceivable that it was robbed later.
Above_ Chongzhen Emperor Coal Mountain Suicide
Second, geographic location strong>
Grave robbery since ancient times It’s not a matter of getting on the table, it’s taking the world’s worst. Therefore, for the thief, if there are many people around the tomb of the emperor, it is difficult to do it, and it is easy to be spotted if there is a disturbance. The Ming Tombs and Ming Dong Tombs are both located in Nanjing Zijin Mountain, while the Ming Tombs are located in the suburbs of Changping, Beijing.
by It can be seen that the Ming Tombs are located close to the North and South Beijing in terms of geographical location, so whether it is during the Ming Dynasty, the Qing Dynasty or the Republic of China, it is difficult to pirate and excavate under the eyes of the government.
Qingling Contrary to the Ming Tomb, the Qing Dong Tomb is located in Malanyu in Zunhua, Hebei, while the Qingxi Tomb is located in Hebei Baoding. Malanyu is far away from big cities and is a small enclosed place with a small population. It is precisely based on this that Sun Dianying can use the excuse of”military exercises” to quickly blockade this place, and the news of his tomb robbery is also spread out after a long time. Although the location of Xiling is relatively remote, it is close to Baoding, so although it was stolen, the overall situation is better than that of Dongling.
Above_The Tomb of Concubine Rong (Xiangfei) in the Eastern Tomb of Qing Dynasty p>
3. Mingling Degree of protection
The imperial tombs of the Ming and Qing dynasties must be strictly protected during the reign of their respective dynasties. For example, in the Ming Dynasty, the Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum of Taizu Zhu Yuanzhang alone had more than five thousand sergeants of Xiaolingwei responsible for the protection. There is also a shrine supervisor responsible for daily maintenance. The Qing Dynasty also did the same with the East and West Tombs. For example, the East Tombs were set up in the East Tombs.General Manager Minister, from Malan TownshipThe General Soldier served as the eighth battalion with nearly 3,000 soldiers, and the Chief Minister of Xiling was served by the General Soldier of Taining Town. . However, for the protection of the emperor’s tombs, the key lies in how the dynasty was carried out after the fall.
Chongzhen In the seventeenth year (1644), Li Zicheng occupied Beijing and Emperor Chongzhen was martyred. Although Beijing was lost at this time, Nanjing was one of the two capitals of the Ming Dynasty and the root of the ancestors, and most of itChina is still under the control of the Ming Dynasty, so at this time Nanjing’s Taizu Mingxiao Tomb and Mingdong Tomb are still protected. Li Zicheng occupied Beijing for a total of only over a month before he quickly evacuated. Therefore, although the ground structures of the Ming Tombs have been damaged during this period, there has been no serious excavation of the Ming Tombs.
Above_ Aixinjueluo·Dorgun (November 17, 1612-December 31, 1650)
After the Qing army entered the customs and occupied Beijing, in order to win the hearts of the people, it once played”We The slogan”revenge the emperor’s father”, even Dorgon issued an edict in the name of Emperor Shunzhi to send a funeral for the Emperor Chongzhen. The edict said:”Let the officials and people serve the emperor Chongzhen for three days, and the Ministry of Rites Taichang Temple prepares the emperor. Ceremonial funeral”.
In In this case, the Ming Tombs were strictly protected by the Qing Dynasty. For example, the Qing court specially set up eunuchs to protect the tombs, to guard the tombs. The households also allocated land to be responsible for the management and maintenance of the Ming Tomb. They also ordered local officials to inspect the buildings and trees in the tomb. The Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum in Nanjing is also valued. For example, Kangxi went to Nanjing many times to carry out sacrifices and imperial maintenance during his southern tour. In the third year of Shunzhi (1646), Wang Ke, a farmer near the Ming Tombs, and others robbed the tomb of the imperial concubine Zheng. After the incident, he was beheaded and abandoned by the government, and he was severely punished. So on the whole, Ming Tombs were well protected during the Qing Dynasty.
Above_ Guards guarding the tomb
Four. The degree of protection of the Qingling Tombs
The circumstances of the demise of the Qing Dynasty and the demise of the Ming Dynasty are completely different. After the fall of the Ming Dynasty, because the Qing army quickly entered the pass and unified the north and south, there were no warlords, The situation of split and separatism, but the gradual unification of the whole country, restored order, and the Ming Tomb was protected by the Qing Dynasty in time. But this was not the case after the fall of the Qing Dynasty. After the Qing emperor abdicated, the Republic of China lacked a strong central government, and the domestic situation was turbulent and chaotic, especially under the rule of the Beiyang government During that period, there were separatist and melee warlords everywhere.
Although When the Qing emperor abdicated, the abdication edict agreed with the government of the Republic of China contained the content of”after the emperor of the Qing Dynasty resigned, his ancestral temple and mausoleum will be enshrined forever”, and the minister of mausoleum protection was retained, and some Eight Banners soldiers and green camp guards were stationed. But with the chaos of the situation, the protection of the mausoleum became more and more difficult. In addition to the so-called minister of the mausoleum who often did not go to guard, some soldiers who guarded the mausoleum also robbed themselves. The Eastern Tomb of the Qing Dynasty is just next to the warlord Sun Dianying at the site of Jixian Mashen Bridge.
Then Considering the differences in the geographical location, architectural level and layout design of Ming Tombs and Qing Tombs mentioned above, Sun, as a warlord, will certainly not go to the outskirts of Beijing and do not belong to his own territory and cause trouble in the Ming Tombs which are extremely difficult to dig. , So he directly sent troops to drive away all the guards of the tomb and sealed off the tomb area, and the Qing Dong Tomb was bad luck. Including the multiple thefts of the Eastern Tombs of the Qing Dynasty and the Western Tombs of the Qing Dynasty, they were all related to the chaos during the Anti-Japanese War.
Above_Dongling (Zunhua Dongling) generally refers to the Qing Dongling
After the fall of the Qing Dynasty, the nationalism and social anti-Qing sentiment in the early years of the Republic of China also caused The protection degree of Qingling Tomb is relatively low. For example, after Sun Dianying robbed the East Tomb, in order to cleanse himself, he said with a face that his ancestors were slaughtered by the Manchu and wanted revenge. He also had”Sun Yat-sen and Feng Yuxiang and others are the life of Ge Manqing. (His) ability is limited. He can only kill people and is worthy of the ancestors and the Han nationality.” Many people thought these remarks were reasonable at the time. Conversely, the protection of the Ming Tombs is also related to this point, because the Ming Dynasty, as the last Han dynasty in Chinese history, suffered during the Taiping Rebellion in the Qing Dynasty.Hong Xiuquan and others’ protection.
and After the demise of the Qing Dynasty, the revolutionary party paid many sacrifices to Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum, and attached great importance to Ming Mausoleum. Therefore, under the influence of nationalism, Ming Mausoleum had an extra layer of”amulet”.
As mentioned above, due to differences in the level of construction and layout design, including the location of the tomb area and the degree of protection after the fall of the dynasty, the Ming Tomb was well protected, while the Qing Tomb was severely robbed.
Author :Li GuangcaiCorrection/Edit:Lilith
【 1]”Ming Ming Tombs” Hu Hansheng China Youth Publishing House
【2】”Manuscript of Qing History” Beiyang Government set up a library to edit Zhonghua Bookstore
”Sunset at the Tomb” Yuenan Commercial Press
【4】”Ming Dynasty Emperor Tomb System Research” Liu Yi People’s Publishing House
The text is created by the History University team, and the pictures are from the Internet. The copyright belongs to the original author.