On this day of August 6, 1945, after a loud bang, I saw a huge flower over Hiroshima The mushroom cloud was rising, emitting an extremely dazzling light. For a time, the flames blazed into the sky, and the explosion shock wave swept wildly, and swallowed the city of Hiroshima.
Only two days later, August 9th, Nagasaki It was not spared either. After dropping the atomic bomb code-named “Fatty”, the U.S. B29 bomber drove away… but what was left was a barrenness and silence.
Shortly thereafter, Japan finally announced Surrendered unconditionally. People all over the world have also seen the terrifying power of the atomic bomb for the first time. Wherever it reaches, humans and animals are destroyed, and no grass can grow. It has brought endless troubles to Japan. Japan has also become the present day. The only country that has experienced the power of the atomic bomb.
The Korean War broke out
Since World War II, the United States has become a superpower in the world today, and it has become the world’s superpower, and The Soviet Union formed a two-legged situation, fighting against each other. Both of them have nuclear countries, not giving way to each other, incompatible with fire and water, and tit-for-tat, almost in 1962 In the Cuba Missile Crisis that broke out in 1991, humanity was once again drawn into a nuclear war. The two sides were at war, and the arrows were already on the line, but fortunately, this”arrow” was not fired in the end, allowing people all over the world. Can’t help but breathe a sigh of relief.
But before the Cuban missile was in danger, there was another conflict, which almost moved the United States to use nuclear weapons, and our country is also involved in this conflict. Speaking of this, perhaps many friends have already guessed it. It was the The Korean War.
The national civil war, but driven by the interests of all parties, made the United States, China, the Soviet Union and many other countries Participating in it all unanimously, fought into an international local war.
Since September 15th, the United Nations forces of 15 countries, led by the United States, landed in Incheon, South Korea and launched a large-scale counterattack. The Chinese People’s Volunteers were also requested by North Korea in October 1950 >Started to go to North Korea Battlefield to support operations.
Since the volunteers joined the battle, the The situation began to change. The Chinese People’s Volunteers, who had never thought that their weapons and national strength were not equal to the US military, once beat the US military to disgrace, and even retreated the US military to the south of the 38th parallel.
It is really frustrated to beat the US military. After all, as a world power, the US military has paid heavy casualties and huge military expenditures on the Korean battlefield, but it has never been able to capture the The victory of the war, thinking of this, how can the US military easily swallow this breath?
The Korean War has been fought for three years, now that the US military is on the ground In the case of using all kinds of heavy fire weapons in the air and the air, they have failed to achieve results. Then why didn’t the US military consider using their ace nuclear weapons on the Korean battlefield? Maybe it’s not that I don’t want to, nor is it soft-hearted, but not dare.
In the early period of the Korean War, as the commander-in-chief of the United Nations MacArthur has always advocated expanding the battle, and in July 1950, when faced with the Pentagon’s inquiry, he said without shame:
If New China really sends troops to fight, it can use atomic bombs against the Chinese army.
With the participation of the Volunteers, the U.S. military was defeated on the battlefield. MacArthur once again proposed the use of atomic bombs and put forward a series of crazy combat plans for him. He once reported to the U.S. government It is recommended that use 26 atomic bombs to deploy a radioactive area along the Yalu River to completely connect North Korea and China The northeastern region is separated, cutting off the supply line of the volunteers from the root.
For those who want to use the atomic bomb In his thoughts, Truman, the then President of the United States, was also a little moved. His speech at the press conference on November 30, 1950 shocked the audience:“The United States has been actively considering the use of atomic bombs… …” But whether or not nuclear weapons are really to be used is still up to MacArthur depending on the battlefield situation.
- Allies’ opposition
Facing the nuclear threat from the United States, not only did not make China feel afraid, but it greatly inspired China’s determination to develop its own nuclear weapons, and will soon develop nuclear weapons. The plan was put on the agenda, as Chairman Mao said at the beginning:
“He dropped his atomic bomb, I dropped my grenade.”
But Truman’s remarks actually scared the United States’ European allies. The British were first anxious. More than 100 British parliamentarians began to jointly sign letters of protest, resolutely opposed to “the use of atomic bombs under any circumstances”, even the former prime minister Churchill is also among the opponents. In his opinion, the expansion of the Korean war will weaken the defense forces of Europe. After all, the Soviet Union also has nuclear weapons. The Soviet Union Nuclear bombs are not easy to throw into the United States, but it is not difficult to throw them into Europe and Japan.
Know that President Truman’s remarks did not mean That said, in fact, within a few days after that, a batch of disassembled nuclear warheads in the United States was transported by air to the Far East and temporarily stored on an aircraft carrier in the United States..
How can the United States not let his European allies worry about this? After all, you are happy that the United States dropped the atomic bomb, but the whole of Europe may follow you.
Clement Richard Attlee, then British Prime Minister, even flew to Washington to meet Truman for this purpose, and finally got Truman“not use the atomic bomb”, and barely reached a consensus on the North Korean issue. Therefore, the first reason the United States did not use atomic bombs on the Korean battlefield was the unanimous opposition of its allies..
When the war lasted until 1951, Five consecutive battles have left the U.S. military in the quagmire of war and it is difficult to get out. The front line of the Korean battlefield has been stabilized near the 38th line. The U.S. military has gradually lost the initiative in the Korean battlefield, and the suspicion between Truman and MacArthur has grown. deep.
Truman even hated MacArthur, thinking that he not only didn’t know how to reflect on his tactical command errors, but also called in three days to tell him a series of bad news, and kept asking for reinforcements.
So Truman finally decided to remove all of MacArthur’s duties. Change of coaches, and Li Qiwei will take over as the commander-in-chief of the United Nations Army. After MacArthur was dismissed, the newly appointed Li Qiwei also regarded the atomic bomb as a trump card that could break the deadlock and turn the US military from defeat to victory.
In December 1951, Li Qiwei not only suggested that the U.S. military use chemical weapons on the battlefield, but even proposed to the U.S. government to Prepare 38 atomic bombs and conduct nuclear strikes against volunteers when necessary.
And in 1952, the United States experienced changes again. The president was no longer by Truman, but was succeeded by Eisenhower, who was a soldier.
Eisenhower was the commander of the U.S. Army in World War II. He has always been decisive in his military qualities. Compared to Truman, he may be more tough. In the face of the question of whether to use an atomic bomb on the Korean battlefield, he was Even more unscrupulous, has ordered that all missiles loaded with atomic bombs be transported to a base in Okinawa, Japan, to form a nuclear deterrent against the Chinese volunteers.
In the face of Eisenhower’s nuclear threat, We still did not change our face and expressed our attitude. Chairman Mao said:
“How long the war will last, I don’t think we need to make a decision. In the past it was Truman, now it’s up to Eisenhower, or in the future It’s up to them to decide what the president of the United States is. They will fight for as long as they want, and we will accompany to the end.”
- High cost and low effect
Since the United States has two consecutive All the presidents are in favor of the use of nuclear weapons and have secretly prepared for a nuclear war, so why did they not take that crucial step in the end? It’s about The second reason is actually very simple. The cost of using atomic bombs on the Korean battlefield is too high. And the effect is not great.
A 38th line not only isolates North Korea from South Korea, The geographical difference between the two sides also makes North Korea and South Korea have differences in topography and landforms. Unlike South Korea, they are located in The peninsula North Korea has many mountains to the north, and the territory is mostly mountainous. The terrain is more complex, full of continuous mountains and hills. This terrain undoubtedly affected the power of the US military’s atomic bomb to a certain extent. Play.
Secondly, in the process of fighting the US military, the volunteers always Flexible and extremely agile, it makes it difficult for the US military to figure out the combat route of our military, which prevents the US military from making an accurate strike with an atomic bomb.
If you allow the aimless bombing, it will only cause the limited atomic bombs of the US military to be used for meaningless consumption. In the end, it may not really hurt the volunteers. I lost my wife and broke down. At first glance, it is an unprofitable sale.
But it’s not without exception, at least one place This is the place where the Volunteer Army and the North Korean Army are concentrated, and that is the area near the 38th parallel, but the US military still dare not drop an atomic bomb here. Because the Chinese and North Korean military forces have already made adequate preparations for possible nuclear strikes by the US military at any time:Dig ditch to build air-raid shelters.
Don’t underestimate these seemingly simple fortifications. Even the US military in a previous study on the atomic bomb also stated:If you can go to a certain depth underground, even if you are at the center of the atomic bomb explosion, it is possible to avoid nuclear bomb damage and survive safely.
and our army The tunnels built are not bad either. For example, in the battle of Shangganling, our army was able to avoid American artillery attacks by relying on tunnels. According to Qin Jiwei’s account of the volunteers’ tunnels in his memoirs:
The tunnels built by the volunteers are often as much as 30 meters thick at the top. The tunnels have complete facilities and complexity. People have to be astounded by the ingenuity of the volunteers.
Therefore, these solid anti-beating tunnels And air-raid shelters have undoubtedly become an ideal place to avoid nuclear bomb attacks by the U.S. Army, and the U.S. military has already been in the hands of the Volunteers. It has experienced the greatness of the Volunteer’s tunnel warfare at the beginning, and also knows that with the help of the tunnels and underground air-raid shelters, the U.S. military’s The atomic bomb did not cause much damage and casualties to the Chinese and North Korean forces.
- To the Soviet Union Dread
In addition to the above two reasons, the third The reason is out of fear of the Soviet Union. In fact, throughout the Korean War, the United States has been watching the attitude of the Soviet Union.
After all, at the time, in addition to the United States possessing nuclear weapons, the Soviet Union also successfully tested its first atomic bomb”pumpkin” as early as August 29, 1949. It was declared to the world that the Soviet Union was also a nuclear country. Therefore, it is impossible to say that the US military is not afraid of the Soviet Union.
During the entire Korean War, although the Soviet Union did not On the face of it, it said that it was directly involved in the situation in North Korea, but the Soviet Union’s attention to the North Korean battlefield is actually obvious to all.
Although the Soviet Union did not directly send troops to North Korea, it did not help less privately. At least it has been continuously providing various Soviet-made weapons to the volunteers. It is not as good as the famous Katyusha rocket launcher, once helped the Volunteers to hit the U.S. troops on the battlefield.
In addition to the Sino-Soviet relationship at that time It is still in a very friendly state, and the signing of the Sino-Soviet Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance Treaty also forced the Soviet Union to provide assistance to the volunteers, because the treaty stipulates that China and the Soviet Union Whenever any party encounters an attack, the other party is obliged to send troops to support it.
In other words, if in the Korean War, the U.S. forces dropped all their worries and dropped atomic bombs on the volunteers, then the Soviet Union would also send troops to support and formally participate in the Korean War.
If the powerful Soviet Union formally joins the war, it will undoubtedly be the most An unwilling result, and a worse outcome, is that the Soviet Union may still use its own way of life, and use the same nuclear weapons to counter the US attack.
By then, A nuclear war will be triggered as soon as the consequences will no longer be controlled and borne by the United States. , the United States will also become a target of public criticism. Not only will it not be able to turn the tide of the war, it will attract strong condemnation from the international community and the betrayal of its allies, or it will become an enemy of the entire world. Considering all the consequences that may be caused, the Americans who have always been astute will naturally not make such unwise choices.
- Domestic anti-war in the United States Inspur
Fourth reason strong>, the US military has been fighting North Korea for a long time. Whether it is the consumption of weapons and ammunition, or the casualties of military personnel, it is no less than the volunteers. If the US military uses the atomic bomb resolutely, it will inevitably expand the war situation again, and it also means that there will be a batch of Americans. Young people join the U.S. military and go to the battlefield, so many people will die as a result of the war.
Plus, people just got rid of the haze of World War II at that time, and finally ushered in the long-lost peace. The American people naturally did not want to see the United States involved in a large-scale war again. Therefore, in the latter part of Korea, the anti-war voices in the United States continued and the people’s anti-war sentiment was also rising day by day. Therefore, due to the opposition of its own citizens, it is impossible for the US military to easily use nuclear weapons to strike.
So based on the above four points, why the US military does not The reason for choosing to use the atomic bomb on the Korean battlefield is already very clear. In the final analysis, it is not that the United States does not want to, but that he does not dare and cannot afford the heavy price of using the atomic bomb.
Atomic bombs, atomic bombs are a big killer that people are extremely afraid of and call for restrictions on their use. At the same time, we cannot deny that atomic bombs are good for all nuclear powers, and they are non-nuclear. Regardless of small countries, they all play a certain restrictive and deterrent role, so that people dare not easily use this kind of weapon that can destroy the world. Because we don’t want to see the outbreak of the Third World War, “Peace and Development” is still the common wish of people all over the world.
On July 27, 1953, the US military finally The Armistice Agreement was signed. So far, the three-year War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea finally officially ended with the victory of the Chinese and North Korean troops.
And this battle has also played a brand-new China, so that those who have despised China once looked at it with admiration and dare not look down upon it. Robert O’Neill, a strategist at the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom, once wrote in his book”The Battle of the Qing Dynasty”:
“China has jumped into the world from their victory. A great power in the world that can no longer be despised”
Chairman Mao also splashed ink for it and wrote:
“The kings of Yan Chu and Qi each have their lives Many years ago, the contradictions were boundless, but now a new era has been swept away…”
Since then, China’s new era has begun, and China is gradually rising.