One day in February 1947 in Xinhua, Yan’an The radio station broadcasted such a message:
In Shanxi Wenshui County, a village called Yunzhou West Village Here, on the 12th of last month, a 17-year-old female Communist Party member Liu Hulan was killed by Yan Xishan’s army.
During the public interrogation, Yan Jun asked her:“Is it the Communist Party?” She said:“Yes!”
Yan Jun asked her again:“Why join the Communist Party?” She replied:“The Communist Party does things for the people.”
Yan Jun asked:“In the future, you still have to do something for the Communist Party?”She said:“As long as you live, you must do it for the people.”
At this time, Yan The army carried out the guillotine and killed Yang Guizi, a 70-year-old elder in front of her, and several others, and threatened her:“As long as I do not serve the Eighth Route Army in the future, I will not kill you.”The young heroine replied firmly:“That is impossible!”
Yan Jun asked again:“Are you really willing to die?” The brave and strong Liu Hulan calmly lay under the guillotine and said loudly:“What’s so terrible to die! To kill? It’s up to you. I live to be 17 years old, and it will be like this.”
In this way, the 17-year-old heroine is generous and justified. The elders of the whole village have written down this bloody hatred. They decided to erect a monument to commemorate this people’s good daughter forever.
This newsletter of more than 300 words simply and vividly explained the murder of Liu Hulan, the youngest martyr in the history of our party and the good daughter of the party. As Chinese people in the old calendar are used to talking about false years instead of full years, Liu Hulan, who was born in October 1932, was said to be 17 years old in the report, but in fact he was less than 15 years old.
Young people may already be very It is hard to imagine what a little girl under the age of 15 can do, how big mistakes can she make, worthy of being brutally murdered in the presence of the village fathers, fellow villagers and her relatives, but she herself is not afraid and surrendered?
It was not until 1959, years after Liu Hulan’s sacrifice, that she was betrayed by a traitor. It turns out that Liu Hulan had been sold by a”mass” who was arrested earlier than her.
01. The”dog village chief” was suppressed, and the enemy wanted to use Liu Hulan as a”model”
In June 1946, with the full-scale outbreak of the War of Liberation, Shanxi’s”land-head snake” Yan Xishan also followed Chiang Kai-shek’s rhythm closely and expressed his grievances against the Communist Party in Shanxi. And the Eighth Route Army under their leadership launched a frantic offensive. Only within the territory of Wenshui County, Shanxi’s hometown, Liu Hulan, he arranged three regiments. Some old landlords also took the opportunity to entangle the local ruffians and formed an armed organization called the”Struggle and Revenge Self-Defense Force”, waiting for the opportunity to return to the pre-War of Resistance in the fish-and-meat township and domineering state, and rancor and harm with Yan Xishan’s army. the masses.
In order to deal with the brutal persecution of the enemy, the Wenshui County Party Organization decided to arrange for some of the comrades who have been exposed and inconvenient to continue hiding their work, and some comrades who still need to continue to exercise, to be transferred in batches from Pingchuan and other places to nearby mountains. .
Originally, Liu Hulan, who had not been in the party for a long time In the list of transferred personnel, Liu Hulan urged to stay when she was notified by her superiors. She said:I asked the superiors to keep me in Pingchuan to fight. I am familiar with it and can persist.” After careful consideration, the superiors agreed to Liu Hulan’s request, allowing her to continue to work in Pingchuan, and asked her to “Always be prepared to deal with bad situations.”
As more and more With more enemy forces pressing down on the territory, Liu Hulan’s working environment has become more and more sinister. In a breakout operation in mid-December 1946, Liu Hulan lost contact with her superiors, but she still risked her life and ran to the house of Huo Zhuanlan, secretary of the Women’s Rescue Association in the next village, and cleaned up with her that might bring damage to the party organization. Dangerous documents.
At that time, where Liu Hulan and his family were Shi Peihuai, the head of Yunzhou West Village, was appointed by the head of the Yan family of Elephant Town, so he has been very effective since taking office. Do everything you can to flatter, and constantly search for the people’s money and food to offer to the enemy’s army to win the favor of the”master”. At the same time, he also collected our intelligence for the enemy in an open manner, doing everything possible to disrupt the relationship between our party and the masses, causing great interference to the normal development of our party’s work. The villagers also hated him as a”strong>” dog. village head”.
After Liu Hulan returned to the village, he reported to the district mayor Chen Dezhao what he had learned and the demands of the people through Shi Sanhuai, an underground traffic officer in the village. On the evening of December 21st soon after, Chen Dezhao, with the approval of the county magistrate Xu Guangyuan, and with the cooperation of Liu Hulan and others, with the cooperation of Liu Hulan and others, he secretly solved Shi Peihuai, the”dog village chief,” in the dark of the night. .
Shi Peihuai was killed suddenly, and the villagers couldn’t help but rush to tell each other, but it also aroused great fear and hatred from the enemy. In the afternoon of the next day, Zhang Derun (actually an enemy spy), the secretary of the village office in Yunzhou West Village, reported Shi Peihuai’s death and his own guess of Shi Peihuai’s”death” to the enemy’s Elephant Town military camp. In his report, he said:
“The new head of Shi Village, Yunzhouxi Village, was suddenly assassinated. The cause of his death was that Chen Dezhao, the head of the communist district, and Liu Hulan, secretary of the Women’s Rescue Association, were lurking in the village and undermining the regime. Work in this village is quite difficult.”
In the next few days, the enemy continued to gather intelligence to “report” to his superiors, please “handle Means”, while intensively arranging for the”Struggle for Revenge Self-Defense Forces” to go to Yunzhou West Village one after another to arrest the”suspicious persons” in their eyes, rob property, threaten the party members and cadres in the village and ask them to”surrender”. They also threatened and lured the masses to “be brave to expose”, threatening to ” Village Chief Shi must not die unclearly, and he will not give up unless he catches two funerals!”
Liu Hulan, who is hidden behind a house, watched as a group of enemies took the district The uncle of Chen Dezhao went outside, robbed his house, and set fire to his house again, and then he left. Liu Hulan was extremely angry, but had no choice but to reluctantly report the news to Chen Dezhao.
On the morning of January 8, 1947, the leader of the revenge team in Elephant Town, Lu Defang, and the company commander of the Yan army Xu Desheng led dozens of people to suddenly surround the West Village of Yunzhou and capture Chen Dezhao’s Uncle Shi Sanhuai, militiaman Shi Liuer, Shi Xiyu, Zhang Shenger, and Han Laji went to the stronghold of the enemy elephant town.
Through the”interrogation” of the five people, a conclusive report appeared at the head of the 215th regiment of the Yan army that evening, and believed that Shi Peihuai was assassinated from the village. Female Communist Party member Liu Hulan, Communist Party District Chief Chen Dezhao, and his younger brother.
The head of the group, Guan Qihua, then asked the division While reporting, it was pointed out that it’s best to take this opportunity to kill these people and be a”typical” near Elephant Town, so that local farmers, militias, and guerrillas can be honest and obedient. The administrative power of Wenshui County can also be implemented”smoothly”. Undoubtedly, Guan Qihua’s proposal was approved, and the danger was getting closer and closer to Liu Hulan.
In fact, after the enemy captured 5 people on January 8, Liu Hulan’s parents felt the seriousness of the situation and persuaded her to go up the mountain and hide. Instead, Liu Hulan smiled and comforted them, saying that he would pay attention to safety, but he had to wait for the notice from the superior and could not act without authorization.
On the night of January 11, Liu Hulan received A notice from her superior asking her to leave Yunzhou West Village. At the same time, in the lobby of a courtyard house in Elephant Town not far away, a group of people are laying out an action plan for the next day. The enemy decided to encircle Yunzhou West Village early the next morning. Zhang Quanbao, known as the”Big Beard”, was in charge of the command. The newly appointed Yunzhou West Village mayor Meng Yongan was responsible for summoning the villagers to the Guanyin Temple in the south of the village. The enemy army was the 215th regiment. The commander of the first battalion and the second company Xu Desheng was in charge of arresting people, and the leader of Elephant Town’s “Struggle and Revenge Self-Defense Force” captain Lu Defang was responsible for the execution…
We all know what happened later. . At dawn on January 12, Liu Hulan, who had not had time to escape from the village and was among the crowd, was discovered by Wu Jinchuan, the leader of the”revenge team” and member Bai Zhanlin, who knew her, and pulled out of the crowd.
After all kinds of intimidation, temptation, and intimidation by the enemy headed by Zhang Quanbao, after categorically refusing to disclose any information to the enemy, refusing to”do nothing for the Communist Party in the future,” and frankly”fearing death to be a Communist Party,” Liu Hulan acted as a beloved relative and the whole village. In the face, she bravely sacrificed her life of less than 15 years old!
Six people were killed at the same time as Liu Hulan, Shi Sanhuai, Shi Liuer, Shi Shihui, Zhang Niancheng, Liu Shushan and Chen Shurong. The relatives and the masses are sorrowful, and the world is moved!
02. What happened to the”murderers” who killed Liu Hulan and others?
After Liu Hulan and other 7 martyrs were killed, less than one In May, the famous 359th brigade of our army conquered Wenshui County, most of the Yan troops surrendered, and the rest scattered and fled. With the dawn of victory, the desire to”avenge Liu Hulan and other martyrs” is also possible. People shouted”catch the’big beard’ alive”, hoping to use the blood of the enemy to pay homage to their relatives who were brutally killed not long ago.
The first to be arrested was Wu Jinchuan and Bai Zhanlin, the leader of the”Struggle and Revenge Self-Defense Force” in Elephant Town, who dragged Liu Hulan out of the crowd. The former was arrested in Elephant Town on February 5, 1947 and then taken to Yunzhou West Village. People suppressed this vicious executioner in the place where Liu Hulan died. The latter was found by the militia of Elephant Town on February 18, 1947 and was escorted to the public security department and executed.
Lv Defang, the captain of the”Struggle and Revenge Self-Defense Force” in Elephant Town, frequently visited Yunzhouxi Village before Liu Hulan was arrested and threatened the masses to betray his party members. He repeatedly attacked Shi Sanhuai and Shi Sanhuai, who were arrested on January 8. Shi Liuer and others tortured to extract a confession, and personally participated in the formulation of the action plan on January 12. In the battle to liberate Wenshui County, he tried to escape by disguising himself as a businessman, and was killed by the Eighth Route Army near Yi’er Village.
Meng Yongan, the successor of”dog village chief” On the day Liu Hulan was killed, he was responsible for driving all the villagers to the square in front of the Guanyin Temple, forcing them to identify, betray, beat and kill the Communists, but none of the masses listened to him. Under the threat of adultery from the enemy, people can only watch their loved ones die tragically in front of them. In July 1947, Meng Yongan, who fled to Qingxu Coal Mine, was arrested by our army and died of illness in prison.
In addition, Xu Desheng, the second company commander of the first battalion of the 215th regiment of the Yan army, was promoted to the battalion commander because of his”contributions” to killing Liu Hulan and others. When Wenshui County was liberated in early February 1947, he fled back to his original village in Wu. The following year, Qixian County where Wu Village was located was liberated, and he fled to Jialing Town, Qixian County, where he lurked in a medicine shop. The cook was arrested after being exposed by the masses in West Village of Yunzhou within a short time, and was shot and executed by our public security department in April 1951.
People hate it and want it most The”big beard” Zhang Quanbao captured alive was captured in the Taiyuan Liberation War in April 1949, and was sent to the Chahar Farm Brigade for labor reform in July. He changed his name to Zhang Shenghao and concealed his crime of killing Liu Hulan from the party and the people. He was released in July 1950. Knowing his sins, Zhang Quanbao returned to his hometown of Yuncheng, Shanxi. The first thing he did was to shave off his eye-catching beard and light off the obvious mole on his face to start a cigarette business.
In the winter of 1950, Zhang Quanbao was in the theater, hiding behind the crowd and watching the opera”Liu Hulan” with a horror. When he heard that the beard in the play was called”Company Chief Xu”—that is, Xu When he was victorious, he was happy and scared. It seemed that even the screenwriter couldn’t figure out the facts. He thought he could finally get through. However, many acts of injustice will kill themselves. After the”counterrevolutionary suppression” movement began, Zhang Quanbao, who had committed a lot of evil, was reported by his”comrade-in-arms brothers” who had also served in the Yan army. After his arrest, he confessed to the crimes of conspiring and killing Liu Hulan and other martyrs. Not shy, was punished due to it.
So far, the martyrs such as Liu Hulan have been brutally arrested and persecuted The culprit seems to have been subservient. But people always feel that something is wrong. For example, why can Wu Jinchuan and Bai Zhanlin hit the target and catch Liu Hulan all at once? If it hadn’t been confirmed in advance that Liu Hulan was a member of the Communist Party, why did they have to kill a girl under the age of 15 with just one extremely hasty”trial”? Who on earth revealed the exact information that”Liu Hulan is a member of the Communist Party” to the enemy?
03. The traitor who lived until 1963
Among the people who were arrested on January 8, 1947 before Liu Hulan and other martyrs were killed, there was a man named Shi Xiyu, nicknamed Shi Wuze, who was in the same township as Liu Hulan. Unlike Shi Sanhuai and others, who were ultimately brutally killed by the enemy, Shi Xiyu not only was not killed, but at the scene of Liu Hulan’s interrogation, she acted as a force to stun Shi Sanhuai with a stick, and then make Shi Sanhuai blood splashed with a knife. The”masses”.
Is he really an innocent”people”?
In October that year when Liu Hulan and other martyrs were killed, Shi Xiyu was arrested for betraying Liu Hulan, but he denied his suspected crimes, and the conditions did not allow him. Released due to insufficient evidence. When he returned to the village, Shi Xiyu said that his grievances were greater than the heavens, and that Shi Sanhuai was a traitor. He betrayed Liu Hulan and all the secrets of the Communist Party in Yunzhou West Village, Wenshui County,”telling everything.” .
Until September 1958, he was the head of Jishou, Hunan Province Chen Delin (Chen Dezhao’s sixth brother), the head of the county party committee, and the families of other martyrs in the Liu Hulan tragedy, reported to the Shanxi Provincial Public Security Bureau Shi Xiyu’s suspicious performance over the past few years. Only then did he come into the sight of the public security department again.
In the next year or so, the public security departments of Wenshui County and Shanxi Province have gone through a large number of rigorous investigations and investigations of the masses, and have obtained more and more information about Shi Xiyu from the masses’ disclosures and accusations. According to the available information, the criminal face of this former Communist Party member who rebelled against the party and betrayed his comrades gradually surfaced.
According to the arrest in August 1960 , The evidence of Zhang Derun, who was the first to write whistle-blower materials that year, after the”dog village chief” Shi Peihuai was killed, Zhang Derun was in the house of the landlord Shi Tingpu, and asked the battalion commander of the first battalion of the 215th regiment of Yan Xishan’s army secretly to the west village of Yunzhou. He and the deputy battalion commander reported on his guess that Shi Peihuai was suppressed, and also provided them with a list of Communists, activists, and family members of Yunzhou West Village. Not only Shi Xiyu, but also Liu Hulan who died at the same time as Liu Hulan were on the list. Shi Liu’er and Zhang Niancheng were two martyrs, and Liu Hulan’s friend Jin Xian’er and others.
Yes, Shi Xiyu was also a member of the Communist Party at the time, and it was two years before Liu Hulan joined the party. He once served as a Peasant Association Secretary. It was just that at that time, he no longer had the faith and character of a communist, and he was full of complaints because his name was not on the list of people transferred to the mountain by the party organization.
The day after Shi Peihuai’s death, also It was from December 22, 1946 to January 8, 1947, that Lu Defang, the captain of the”Struggle and Revenge Self-Defense Force” in Elephant Town, summoned Shi Xiyu five times. It was from Shi Xiyu’s mouth that Lu Defang obtained all of Yunzhou West Village. The list of party members also confirmed that the”murderer” who suppressed Shi Peihuai was Shi Sanhuai’s nephew and Chen Shurong’s son Chen Dezhao.
Because Shi Xiyu has completely betrayed his beliefs, betrayed the party organization, and betrayed the people, so when the enemy arrested people in the village on January 8, he was not panicked—because He knew that it was just acting on the spot; therefore, on the day Liu Hulan and others were killed, when the kind and simple villagers collectively silently refused to be dragged onto the stage by the enemy and beat the martyrs who were about to be executed, Shi Xiyu acted as the”innocent.” When Shi Sanhuai shouted,”I Shi Sanhuai died today, but I know who killed me”, before he could finish his words, Shi Xiyu was anxious to be a guilty conscience. Patience against Shi Sanhuai…
This is such a person who has no bottom line or principle. After he was arrested for betraying Liu Hulan, he used his clever tongue and the lack of evidence at the time to be released. He still did not think of repentance and continued to work with the party. Against the people, he planted his crimes on Shi Sanhuai, who had already sacrificed. After liberation, he became a member of the”Land Reform Commissioner” and was expelled from the party for stubbornly following the landlord route. It was not until September 9, 1959 that he was arrested and imprisoned again for the case of Liu Hulan.
What makes people feel extremely angry is that when he was tried in the court, Shi Xiyu still sometimes denies in every way, and sometimes pretends to be deaf and dumb. It was not until the court put a lot of evidence before him that he seemed to be discouraged. Like the ball, he admitted his crimes. On February 14, 1963, 16 years after Liu Hulan and other 7 martyrs died because of his betrayal, Shi Xiyu was finally executed by the people’s police.
This unscrupulous, cunning and unrepentant traitor, after killing his former folks and comrades, has lived in this world for another 16 years!
04. What is the difference between noble and mean?
The reason why Shi Xiyu betrayed Liu Hulan and others , In fact, it is not without a trace. Liu Hulan went from joining the party to sacrifice, only half a year. In the past six months, two incidents occurred that caused Shi Xiyu’s face to be dishonored. This probably also planted the seeds for him to betray the party and surrender to the enemy in the near future.
The first incident happened shortly after Liu Hulan joined the party, at a cadre meeting in the West Village of Yunzhou. The theme of that meeting was to determine the targets of struggle in the village’s land reform movement. Shi Xiyu, the secretary of the peasant association at the time, was bought by the landlord Shi Tingpu with a basket of mutton before the meeting, so he strongly advocated fighting for a wealthy middle peasant at the meeting. . Liu Hulan didn’t understand. After enumerating the many evil deeds of the landlord Shi Tingpu, she asked Shi Xiyu in summary:“If you don’t fight Shi Tingpu, who should you fight against?” Finally, after discussion, the meeting adopted Liu Hulan’s suggestion of”fighting the landlord”.
The second thing It is related to a widow in the village. At that time, the Women’s Rescue Association organized women in the village to make military shoes for the soldiers of the Eighth Route Army. When the 200 pairs of shoes were collected, people found that one pair of shoes was significantly lighter than other shoes, and the bottom was soft and the stitches were rough. When Liu Hulan saw that it was a widow in the village, she angrily asked to deal with her.
I heard that Shi Xiyu quickly persuaded Liu Hulan, weighing the shoes in his hands pretendingly, and said,”Shoes are okay, take it!” Who knows that Liu Hulan wouldn’t listen at all, so he just picked up an axe. You have to split the sole to see what’s going on inside. Shi Xiyu threatened Liu Hulan and said:”If there is no fake in it, what do you do?”
Liu Hulan went down with an axe, and the soles of the shoes were all straw paper! She asked Shi Xiyu angrily:”Why do you always speak for the landlord?” Soon after, the scandal of Shi Xiyu’s long-term collection of benefits from widows and acting as a”protective umbrella” for widows was exposed, and he lost his position as secretary of the village peasant association. Shi Xiyu blamed all this on Liu Hulan, a reserve party member who was only fourteen or five years old.
From these two things, Shi Xiyu is being After the arrest, the comrades were sold out without waiting for any hardship, and then they acted as the enemy’s running dogs and the”innocent people” who were forced out of the crowd to beat the martyrs.
The poet Bei Dao said:“Despicable is the pass of the despicable, and the noble is the epitaph of the noble.”
This sentence is used to describe Shi Xiyu It couldn’t be more appropriate with Liu Hulan. The former has used his despicableness to open the way for himself all his life, seeing gains and forgetting justice, seeing dangers and failures, so as to live in the world; the latter facing difficulties for his own beliefs and national justice, facing dangers, looking down on life and death.
The old man said:”I would rather be a peaceful dog , Improperly chaotic people”. War can distort human nature, allowing people to abandon their beliefs, betray their own ethics, and persecute comrades in conflict with them and even innocent folks just for the purpose of”living”. But is the purpose of life being just as simple as”living”? If this is the case, what is the difference between humans and other creatures on the earth, at least other creatures will not use any means for their own survival?
Of course there are differences, such as the”Liu Hulan Spirit”. Although war can distort human nature, firm ideals and beliefs can make people form an indestructible will, withstand all extreme tortures including death, so as to achieve the sublimation and immortality of life.
05. Conclusion:Why is the”Liu Hulan Spirit” worth learning from each of us?
According to the”middle peasant” who has more than 40 acres of land in Liu Hulan’s family Family background, even if she does not join the Communist Party of China, even if she has been an ordinary farmer, in that era and region, she can still have a relatively good life, even reaching the level of”Tian Ke Geng’s book is readable, half farming He is half Confucian”.
However, Liu Hulan was not born for herself. Not only did she hear a lot of anti-Japanese and revolutionary stories in the home of her friend Jin Xian’er, but she also heard people say that Shi Changyou, the village hall, sent intelligence to the Eighth Route Army. After being arrested, she unyieldingly protected the party’s secrets and was murdered. She saw it with her own eyes. Jin Xian’er’s mother, who was bitten bloody by the enemy’s wolf dogs in order to cover the revolutionary cadres, even secretly learned that her father, who seldom went out herself, had repeatedly delivered food and food to the Eighth Route Army and the Anti-Japanese Government with the folks in spite of the danger. Materials…
It is these characters and The story together planted a seed in Liu Hulan’s young heart that would nourish her for a lifetime. As we grow older, this seed slowly germinates and emerges from the ground in my heart. As a teenager, she finally understood after studying that this seed is the Communist Party’s firm belief in communism, a firm belief in fear of danger, sacrifice, and unremitting struggle for the well-being of the people.
“Living a good life” is the lifelong wish of the farmers in our traditional agricultural society. Liu Hulan, who grew up in revolutionary stories and deeds, takes this wish in his heart Extending it, it is integrated with the original aspiration and mission of the Chinese Communists, creating her very young but extremely firm revolutionary conviction. She didn’t even have time to feel the beginning of the unique love in her daughter’s house at that age, and she was already filled with the most selfless love.
After Chairman Mao heard her story on the radio, Swipe to write her the title of “the greatness of life, the glory of death” in eight characters. For Liu Hulan,”sacrifice” may just replace a form of life. To this day, her life is still shining; after thousands of years, her spirit is always with the world!