[Reading Notes on History]

After the outbreak of the War of Resistance Against Japan, the Chinese Communist Party called for the National People’s General Mobilization, advocating open democracy, improving people’s livelihood, mobilizing the masses, organizing the masses, and arming the masses. Implement the all-round resistance line in which all the people participate in the war and support the war. The anti-Japanese armed forces led by the party actively cooperated with the frontal battlefield, opened up the battlefield behind enemy lines, and established the anti-Japanese base area. After the Anti-Japanese War entered the stalemate stage, the anti-Japanese guerrilla war led by the Chinese Communist Party was generally launched, and the anti-Japanese democratic base areas continued to consolidate and expand. The development to the vast areas of North China, Central China, and South China has strategically created a situation of counter-encirclement of cities and transportation lines that the Japanese army mainly occupied. The Japanese invaders concentrated on the Japanese and puppet forces to repeatedly”sweep” the anti-Japanese base areas behind enemy lines led by the Communist Party, and implemented the”three lights” policy of burning, killing, and robbing all. The Japanese and puppet troops used”mopping up” as the main form of combat, and launched various types of offensives such as”cleaning the countryside”,”cannibalization” and”security strengthening movement” in an attempt to destroy the Chinese anti-Japanese armed forces. In response to the crazy offensive by the Japanese army, the Chinese Communist Party led the army and civilians to carry out an extremely arduous struggle against”mopping up” and against”clearing the country”, and created many extremely effective, flexible and diverse tactics. Victory made the Japanese and puppet troops like beasts trapped in the ocean of People’s War.

Practice Sparrow wars in mountainous areas. When sparrows are looking for food and flying, they never form groups. Most of them are one, two, three, five, or more than a dozen. The sparrows are small, fast, and flexible. The sparrow warfare created by the method of sparrow foraging. Unconsciously, it breaks in and defeats the enemy at a loss. In November 1937, 500 Japanese infantry and a cavalry company attacked Fan Village near Changzhi County, Shanxi. The 129th Division of the Eighth Route Army A company’s forces are scattered and ambush more than 10 miles of mountains and roads, in groups of three and five. It was erratic, and attacked the enemy from time to time. After a few hours of fighting, nearly 100 Japanese soldiers were wiped out and one military vehicle was destroyed. In July 1938, Liu Bocheng specifically mentioned Fancun’s battle in the”129th Division’s First Anniversary Tactics Report”, calling it”invented the sparrow war”. Since then, the”sparrow war” has gradually been promoted. When attacking the garrisoned enemy, the militiamen use the familiar advantages to find out the enemy’s various situations, take advantage of the enemy’s unpreparedness, and make a sudden attack; in an ambush, our soldiers and civilians set up ambushes on the way the enemy must pass. Introduce the enemy into the set, and use platoons of guns and landmines to kill and injure the enemy in large numbers; in the blocking battle, our soldiers and civilians adopt a method of dispersing and concealing to eliminate the enemy at the right time.

Practice underground warfare in plain areas. At the beginning of 1939, the Japanese and puppet troops often surrounded villages and towns in the North China Plain, causing bloodshed. Inspired by digging holes in the wild, the Jizhong anti-Japanese armed forces began to excavate and use tunnels to fight against the enemy in order to persist in plain guerrilla warfare for a long time. In order to solve the problems of hypoxia, ventilation and drinking water in the tunnels, the anti-Japanese soldiers and civilians tried every means to combine the tunnel vents with the buildings and natural objects on the ground, such as chimneys, wells, and wall tops, and built them in villages, streets, and courtyards. The bunkers and shooting holes were removed and connected to the tunnel. The anti-Japanese villages and towns gradually developed a network of tunnels, that is, each family, each street, each cave, and each village are connected. Some villages have also invented a series of caves, that is, there are holes under the holes, holes in the holes, real holes, and fake holes, which is dazzling. After the start of the tunnel warfare, the enemy also tried their best to destroy them by finding holes and setting fire, water, and poison. However, the party led the masses to continuously improve the tunnels, cleverly concealing the entrances with walls, pots, wells, and soil kangs, so that the enemy could not easily find the entrances; at the same time, they built traps at the entrances, buried mines, inserted sharp knives, or dug inside The criss-crossing”chessboard road” prevents the enemy from entering the cave; there are also bayonet openings, flaps, and anti-virus and waterproof doors in the cave, as well as a breakout opening that leads directly to the outside of the village. In this way, the tunnel becomes a strong underground fortress that can be attacked, defended, and retreated.

Mine warfare is commonly used in mountainous and plain areas. The military and civilian weapons and equipment of the base areas are relatively poor. In particular, the militias have almost no decent guns. The mines that are easy to manufacture naturally become their main weapons against the Japanese. The masses in various places used materials such as jars, glass bottles, and broken iron pots to fill explosives, and buried them in the roads, fields, and other places where the enemy might pass by and touch them to attack the Japanese and puppet troops who came to”mope”. After a few hardships, the cunning enemy also came up with some ways to deal with landmines. When they met a”thunderstorm”, they used lime powder to spread a circle around it to prevent contact; when they met a”thunderstorm”, they hooked out with an iron hook from a distance. In order to prevent the enemy from clearing mines, the anti-Japanese masses also studied the”child-mother series of mines”. The enemy raised the mother mine and the child mines exploded. The enemy caught the people stepping on the mines in front of them, and then they developed the”raising mine” and let the masses pass. Blow up the enemy’s brigade; if the enemy walks erratically, a”flying explosion” will be implemented. The soldiers and civilians behind enemy lines also buried landmines under the enemy’s bunker, making them frightened and overwhelmed.

According to local conditions, implement breaking attack. On the evening of October 19, 1937, the 769th Regiment of the 129th Division of the Eighth Route Army attacked the Yangmingbao Airport occupied by the enemy. After more than an hour of fighting, 24 enemy aircraft on the apron were destroyed and more than 100 Japanese soldiers were wiped out. The arrogant arrogance of the war of resistance against Japan, the”breakthrough war” in the form of guerrilla fighting came into being. In the Hundred Regiments Battle, the traffic attack is an important part. The participating troops, guerrillas, and militias attack the enemy at the same time, destroying Zhengtai Railway communication lines such as, Tongpu, etc. wiped out a large number of Japanese and puppet troops, and then continued to attack the Japanese and puppet troops on both sides of the communication line, destroying the Japanese strongholds deep in the base area.

Implement water rush warfare in lakes and water network areas. The military and civilians of the Anti-Japanese base area used the complicated terrain of rivers, lakes and harbors, used methods such as blocking rivers to build dams and setting up underwater obstacles, which made it difficult for Japanese motorboats to travel. The military and civilians in Central China defended the Hongze Lake Revolutionary Base with unique water strikes. They deployed mines or used rotten nets to block off the mouth of the river. Once an enemy motorboat entered the blockade of the river, the rotten grass and rotten fishing nets would be drawn into the propellers, making it difficult to move. The movie”Little Soldier Zhang Ga” was filmed on the theme of the Baiyangdian area Yanling team’s water raid. From 1939 to 1945, the Yanling Team cleverly used Baiyangdian water superiority to fought the enemy more than 70 times, and killed and captured the Japanese puppets. Nearly a thousand people, seized a large number of military materials.

Railway guerrilla warfare will be launched along the railway line. The soldiers and civilians in the anti-Japanese base areas attacked the enemy unexpectedly on the vast railway line behind the enemy line, and wiped out the enemy piecemeal, which greatly restrained and consumed the enemy’s strength. The Lunan Railway Guerrillas are typical representatives of this kind of tactics. This anti-Japanese armed force was formally established in Zaozhuang in 1940. Under the leadership and training of the party, it has continuously grown and grown, with a maximum of more than 400 personnel. . They fought on the long railway line, appeared in the mountains and lakes, relying on the masses, using guerrilla tactics, and fought bloody battles with the Japanese invaders. Their legendary heroic deeds are a wonderful chapter in the history of the War of Resistance Against Japan.

(Author:COMMUNIST Department of the Ministry of Education Science and Social Development Research Center Director)

Source:Guangming Daily