Ancient buildings can speak.
They have gone through the baptism of time, and through the gaps of the years, with their own traces, they confide the stories flowing on them to people.
I believe that many people, like me, are obsessed with ancient architecture, but due to time, I have never been able to take a good stroll around Beijing and take a look at Beijing. Ancient building.
I still remember that some time ago, I read a set of”Beijing Ancient Buildings Story”, and I really had an addiction. The past that has never returned is like a moment. Knives are full of”scars” on these ancient buildings.
The stories written in the book make up for the regret that I don’t have time to visit, and also fill in the gaps in my understanding of those ancient buildings. There are also a lot of Hand-painted, as if these ancient buildings are standing in front of my eyes.
Since we talked about ancient buildings in Beijing, we have to talk about the Forbidden City.
Beijing Forbidden City is one of the largest and best-preserved wooden structure ancient buildings in the world. It is a national 5A-level scenic spot. Listed as a world cultural heritage.
Every holiday, visitors to the Forbidden City can be said to be crowded. In the rush, when the voice is full of people, I want to It is not easy to see the bricks of the Forbidden City.
Anyone who has been there may be shocked by the magnificent temperament of the Forbidden City. It turns out that wooden houses can be built with such a flavor.
Forbidden CityThe building is centered on the three halls, covering an area of about 720,000 square meters, with a building area of about 150,000 square meters, with various sizesPalace more than 70 seats, There are more than 9,000 houses, in the heyday lived Emperor, Harem concubine, Court ladies, eunuchs and other thousands.
But people who have been to the Forbidden City will find a very strange thing, that is, there is no Toilet.
Is it because the builders of the Forbidden City missed the toilet in the design? Since there is no toilet, how did the emperor and others who lived in the Forbidden City go to the toilet?
Beijing Forbidden City is the imperial palace of the Ming and Qing Dynasties in China, formerly known as Forbidden City.
In the fourth year of Yongle, Ming Chengzu Zhu Di used Nanjing Palace Museum
Span> was the blueprint for the construction of the Forbidden City in Beijing, which lasted 14 years and was officially completed in the 18th year of Yongle. Since then, it has become the 24 emperors of the Ming and Qing Dynasties.The Royal Palace.
The construction of the Forbidden City is extremely difficult. It took more than ten years to prepare the wood and stone materials for the construction of the imperial palace. The precious nanmu in the Forbidden City Many of the woods are grown in the deep mountains. People everywhere can only venture into the mountains to log wood. As a result, countless people have lost their lives.
It is precisely because of the sacrifices of these people that we posterity can use the Forbidden City to admire the wisdom of the ancients.
But most of the Forbidden City we see now are not The buildings from the Ming Dynasty period were rebuilt during the Qing Dynasty.
Because the houses in the Forbidden City are mostly wooden structures, The house is extremely afraid of fire, and once a fire occurs, the consequences will be extremely disastrous.
In the second year of the completion of the Forbidden City, a fire broke out. As a result, the first three halls were torch, and they were rebuilt. Later, there were more in the Forbidden City during the Jiaqing and Wanli years. Fire broke out once and rebuilt many times.
Chongzhen Seventeen Years, Li ZichengBeijing was captured and the Ming Dynasty was destroyed. After that, Li Zicheng was defeated by the Qing army, before he retreated to Shaanxi , Ordered the burning of the Forbidden City, most of the Forbidden City buildings were burned to ashes, and only six palaces survived.
After the Qing army entered Beijing, it formally took over the Forbidden City. After restoration and reconstruction, the Forbidden City was given a new look until Before Puyi abdicated, it was the private property of the royal family.
Although the Forbidden City has been destroyed and rebuilt many times, and the personnel responsible for construction and design are also different, none of them have built toilets in the Forbidden City. Of course, this is not theirs. Forget it, but there is no need for a toilet in the Forbidden City.
As we all know, the ancient people’s toilet conditions were very poor, not as light as they are now. Lightly flush and clean, In ancient times, common people basically dug a hole in their yard to solve Domestic demand, and then accumulated more, used to fertilize crops, which can be said to save money And convenient.
But in the Forbidden City, it can’t be so casual.
There are many people living in the Forbidden City. Although most of them are women, there are also eunuchs. Besides, the ministers of the palace have to enter the palace to discuss matters. When I was suddenly disturbed by other people, it would be really inconvenient.
Speaking of this, many people might say, shouldn’t it be enough to build the toilet inside the palace?
Of course not yet, because the ancient The electrical equipment for exhaust air supply relies entirely on natural wind and human wind. If the toilet is built in the room, the smell it produces is simply unacceptable.
If the smell will be more intense in summer, let alone the emperor who is noble in the ninety-five years, it is estimated that even the palace ladies and eunuchs will not be able to stay inside.
In addition, there is a more important point. The ancient people were more feudal. The design of the Forbidden City pursued”the unity of man and nature”, using the stars in the sky to connect with the capital. The plan corresponds to highlight the legitimacy of the regime and the supremacy of imperial power.
If toilets were built inside, the emperors would feel that this would affect the overall layout and feng shui structure of the Forbidden City. The air of the emperor.
So, to build a toilet in the palace does not conform to the ruler’s thoughts and ideas, and naturally there is no need to design a toilet.
Since the Forbidden City does not need toilets, but people have three urgency, then live in the Forbidden City How do people here solve the problem of going to the toilet?
In fact, it is very easy to solve, a toilet is enough.
Of course, what ancient people used was not the flush toilet we are using now, but a wooden toilet, which can also be called a wooden toilet, which can be moved anytime and anywhere. Kind.
In the Forbidden City, there is also a”clean room”, which is used as a place for convenience and storage of toilets.
The royal palace is strictly hierarchical and can be enjoyed by people of different levels It is also different. It can be distinguished from the name of the toilet. For example, the name of the emperor, concubine“Official room”, the toilet of the court lady eunuch is called”potty”.
Of course, the toilet is also graded. Some toilets are wrapped in soft materials, and even inlaid with various jewels and carved patterns, and some are only composed of bare wooden boards.
In Qing palace dramas, we often see those high-ranking officials and nobles feel uncomfortable in their stomachs. The toilet bowl, spices, wood ash, etc. are ready.
For those who live in the Forbidden City, the domestic demand is solved, then Five grains how to deal with reincarnation?
If you allow these debris to be placed in the palace with the toilet, it will become a toilet, so this is naturally not possible, and the used toilet will be disposed of in time.
Pour the grains of reincarnation into a special car, and then clean the toilet. After cleaning, put wood ash or spices and the like. After these procedures, the toilet The odor is greatly reduced.
Of course, the emperor and harem concubines don’t clean the toilet by themselves. These tasks are usually done by court ladies, eunuchs, or other low-status handymen. .
But in case any concubine does not open his eyes and provoke When the emperor or queen is reached, he will also be fined for flushing the toilet.
Those cars that specialize in reincarnation of grains can’t be parked often in the Forbidden City. They run a circle in each clean room in the morning and collect the toilets. The reincarnation of the grains will immediately go out of the palace and use these natural fertilizers to irrigate the crops and vegetable fields around the imperial city.
This repeats this cycle to ensure the freshness of the air in the Forbidden City.
In fact, we have an intuitive understanding of this when we watch the Qing Palace drama. Those who want to sneak out of the palace will hide in the transport of natural fertilizers. In the car, there may be people who act as horse-riding carts. They are really coquettish, but how many people can stand the smell?
References:”Minggong History” etc.
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