1946 5 On an ordinary Tuesday on the 7th, the largest repatriation of nationals after World War II opened in the east of China North Curtain.
The blue water is gently beating on the coast of Liaodong Bay, simple Huludao Port on the pier, 2489 Japanese expats are boarding two ships through the steep and narrow gangwayShip. The whistle sounded, and many Japanese , especially Japanese women, were dragging their children and women in ragged clothes. Tears were shed:because these”post-war abandoned people” finally embarked on their way home, because they can’t remember the Chinese people’s grievances with virtue Humanitarian spirit.
From this day to December 25, 1946, in 232 days, there were 158 batches of Japanese prisoners repatriated via Huludao Port, totaling 1,017,549 (including 16,607 Japanese prisoners). On average, there will be two batches every three days, with a batch of more than 6,400 people. On the most day (September 4), 4 ships were sent in a row, repatriating 15,908 people. In the history of the global repatriation of diasporas, the removal of so many people from one port is unprecedented in history.
For many reasons, this experience has been sealed in dust for more than half a century.”Lookout News Weekly” Reporters through in-depth interviews, in commemoration of On the 60th anniversary of the victory of the Chinese People’s War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression, I will reveal it for readers.
From”Human Master” to”Refugee”
Japanese imperialism invaded and occupied Northeast China for 14 years, and the number of immigrants from the country to Northeast China was as high as 1.6 million. At that time, most of the scenic areas of the large and medium-sized cities in Northeast China were designated as residential areas for the Japanese. In the vast rural areas, the Japanese immigrants”Manchurian Development Corps” also enjoy special treatment:The Japanese government not only gives more With the subsidy, each household will give back 10 yards of arable land and pasture (1 yard is about 1 hectare), and these arable land and pasture were originally owned by Chinese farmers. Under the protection of the”Sun Flag”, many Japanese expats regard themselves as superior to the Chinese, domineering and do whatever they want, causing great harm to the Chinese people.
Seeing that the war situation is getting tighter, hundreds of thousands of families of high-ranking Japanese officials and wealthy diasporas in the Northeast have been evacuated first. And the emperor surrendered the edict, and the millions of Japanese in Northeast China instantly became”refugees.” What makes these Japanese expats even more chilling is that the Japanese government adopted a policy of”abandoning the people”, which put them in an extremely difficult situation. At that time, many Japanese expats flocked to Harbin, Changchun, Shenyang and other big cities, many people dare not take the main road, and walk day and night in the mountains and old forests and wilderness. Tens of thousands of women and children have been displaced. According to the”History of Manchuria” compiled by Japan, there were 174,022 Japanese who committed suicide, starved to death, or died in the process of fleeing after the war. Among them, 78,500 of the members of the”Development Group” died. The vast majority of Japanese overseas Chinese who survived by chance gathered in refugee shelters and waited bitterly to return home.
Hirajiko and Kikuchiei who were repatriated from Huludao are sisters. According to their memories, the news that the Soviet Red Army sent troops to the northeast came and their family fled from Beiman in panic. At that time, they threw down their cattle and horses, and only carried some dry food. Their father also carried a shotgun and a Fishing net, I’m afraid I can’t find any fish to eat along the way. rabbit It’s so satisfying. When they arrived in Suihua, the family heard that Japan had surrendered unconditionally, so they waited in the airport warehouse for a month. In the meantime, my father died of typhus, and the 9-year-old sister died of Malnutrition, 22-year-old sister is due to Peritonitis died.
” Asahi Shimbun” senior reporter Ando Shinichi, 7 siblings were born in China. After the defeat of Japan, the family was impoverished and his brother died of depression. On the eve of repatriation and boarding, the sick brother suddenly got worse, and the parents had to let the five children go first. One month later, his parents returned to China, but the younger brother died in Huludao. The depressed parents both died within less than a year after returning home.
Mr. Mitsuo Murai, who was working at the Harbin Japanese Refugee Association at the time, recalled:After October 1945, MomoyamaPrimary school About 30 people die of hunger, cold and typhus in refugee shelters every day, and the bodies of men, women, children and children are piled up On the playground of the school, it was not until May of the following year that these corpses were transported to the public cemetery by carriages for burial. These people became the sacrificial objects of the Japanese imperialists’ war of aggression against China.
The tripartite cooperation between the Kuomintang, the Communist Party and the United States to repatriate Japanese overseas Chinese
As the victorious nation that suffered the greatest national sacrifice in World War II, the Chinese people cannot forget the Japanese militarist “three lights” policy. We cannot forget that China’s rich properties were looted, and we cannot forget that thousands of Chinese people died at the hands of the Japanese invaders. However, after the victory, the Chinese people did not turn violence into violence or complain with grievances, but began to repatriate the Japanese with the broadest mind and the most humane attitude.
On the forty-fourth day after the recovery of Northeast China, that is, September 29, 1945, the Sino-US Joint Chiefs of Staff’s memorandum to the General Command of the Chinese Army mentioned that”Japanese in Northeast (Manchuria) Repatriation plan”.
In 1946, after the then”three-member team of military mediation” (American Marshall, CCP Zhou Enlai, Kuomintang government Zhang Qun) It was coordinated and decided that 75,000 Japanese expatriates in addition to Dandong should be supported by Northeast Democratic Alliance ForceNortheast Democratic AllianceZhang Qun) /span>The 270,000 Japanese nationals responsible for repatriation via North Korea, Dalian were directly repatriated by the Soviet army ; The remaining Japanese nationals in the Northeast China are all concentrated in Huludao Port for repatriation.
Although after the victory of the Anti-Japanese War, the Kuomintang and the Communist Party fought fiercely for control of the Northeast, and military frictions continued. However, regarding the repatriation of Japanese citizens, the KMT and the Communist Party focused on the overall situation, coordinated with each other, and facilitated each other. At that time, there were about 300,000 Japanese in the Communist Party-controlled area, and 800,000 Japanese in the Kuomintang-controlled area. After consultation, the two parties decided to repatriate the Japanese in batches and in an orderly manner. At that time, the Kuomintang’s northeast line established the Japanese Captives Management Office. The director and three deputy directors were all major generals. Chinese Communist Party representatives in Shenyang Rao Shushi, Wu Xiuquan, etc. actively participated in this work. Northeast Democratic Alliance Command Li Minran (Li Lisan) serves as the head of the Japanese Repatriation Management Office.
The entire process of repatriating Japanese citizens is a process that emphasizes the rule of law and order, and is full of humanitarian acts from beginning to end. In the plan formulated at that time, it was repeatedly emphasized that “in order to facilitate the Japanese overseas and reduce the difficulties on the way, the criterion is to protect the whole family and the young and old together.” “Ensure that the Japanese will depart from their place and board the ship on Hulu Island, and they will not be raped or looted along the way. , Infringement, robbery, extortion, intimidation or any other illegal acts, their lives and property shall not be infringed.”
In those days of extreme scarcity, the Chinese government still allocated a large amount of food, fuel, medicine, and 13441 Train skins for repatriation. According to the”Comparison Book of Funds Transferring for the Management Office of Japanese Captives in Northeast China”, from May to August 1946 alone, the expenditure for repatriation amounted to RMB 147,119,218 (Northeast Circulation Voucher), of which only the Japanese nationals’ meal expenses are Expenditure more than 120 million yuan (Northeast Circulation Notes). Jilin Provincial Government Chairman Zhou Baozhong in the CCP-controlled area also signed an order requesting that they cannot afford to buy food from the repatriated Japanese.”You can give one and a half catties of grain and 15 yuan of vegetable money per day according to the number of journey days.” Many kind-hearted Chinese people vacated hot pots for children and old people among Japanese overseas Chinese, and brought water and meals. Once, cholera broke out at the Japanese transshipment station in Huludao, which caused tens of thousands of Japanese to stay in Shenyang, and there was a shortage of fuelwood. China immediately dispatched 500 tons of coal from Fushun. In order to ensure that the Japanese prisoners are treated in a timely manner, Huludao has also specially set up a surgery and enteric department. And Obstetrics and Gynecology“qid=”6537428970676163848″>The hospital, and enough beds are guaranteed. In order to make it easier for the Japanese to understand the repatriation policy and process, China even organized a Japanese“Northeast Herald””, a total of 498 issues were published.
All these show the traditional virtues of the Chinese nation and the broad-mindedness of humanitarianism. The”History of Manchuria” compiled by the Japanese also admitted that there was no”national revenge against the Japanese” after the end of the war, but Chinese people everywhere sympathized with the tragic situation of the Japanese, provided relief in distress, sheltered safety, or took the initiative to give it. Examples of help in daily life are endless.”
On August 21, 1946, the repatriation of Japanese overseas Chinese in the communist-controlled area began. In only one month, 182,222 Japanese overseas were repatriated except for some retained personnel. . Both the Kuomintang and the Communist Party kept their promises in the repatriation of the Japanese. No one took the opportunity to harass or attack the other’s military forces.
In the process of repatriating the Japanese, the the U.S. government also did a lot of coordination The work included the urgent deployment of 120 ships for the repatriation, including the large transport ships of the Sixth Fleet, and Japanese civilian ships such as the”Hokuto Maru” and”Oikumaru”. These ships shuttled between Huludao Port and Japan’s ports such as Sasebo, Hakata, and Maizuru, with more than 800 voyages, and finally completed the mission.
The people look forward to no longer fighting between China and Japan
Time goes by,”Huludao Japanese Repatriation” It’s been more than half a century in a blink of an eye.
Although things are not humans, and the people of Sri Lanka are old, history should not be forgotten and should not be forgotten.
In 1994, Mr. Guohong Weixiong, who was repatriated that year, came to Huludao City. At the time of his repatriation, Mr. Kunihiro was only 13 years old, and he is now a well-known Japanese writer. Considering that 70%of the Japanese people were born after the war, Kunihiro’s greatest wish is to make that period of history into a documentary.”On the one hand, it is to warn against repeating the same mistakes and never fight again; on the other hand, it is to comfort the lives taken by the war. The underground undead.” In the following 3 years, the crew of Guohong Weixiong went to Mainland China to Taiwan area, go to the United States and Singapore, collect relevant materials and information from various places, Huludao city authorities provide great assistance in this regard , And finally completed the large-scale self-reporting documentary”The Great Repatriation of Huludao”. In 1997, the film premiered in Japan and was released by Hashimoto Ryutaro, the then Prime Minister of Japan. Congratulations, the Cultural Counselor of the Chinese Embassy in Japan attended the premiere and praised Guohong Weixiong as a writer with a sense of justice.
The Japanese expats who were treated well by the Chinese people always remember that period of history. They devoted themselves to the cause of Sino-Japanese friendship, wrote memoir articles, visited China to find life-savers, and donated funds to help poor Chinese students complete their studies, demonstrating the traditional friendship between the Chinese and Japanese peoples. Hokariko, who was repatriated from Huludao, is now Chairman of Japan Linyou Co., Ltd., and He is also the chairman of Matsumoto City Japan-China Friendship Association. He hated the war of aggression against China launched by Japanese militarism, and believed that it caused disasters to the Japanese and Chinese people. Over the years, Sui Kuang Zinan has visited Northeast China many times and lived in Lishu County, Jilin Province. Donated to build a modern elementary school. He emphasized that history must not be forgotten, and that history must be fully and truthfully introduced to young people to avoid making historical mistakes again.
Ms. Taniguchi Reiko, 65 years old, had four siblings returning from Huludao Port back then, and now she is an artist. In an interview with reporters from Huludao City News Media in Japan, she said that Japan’s invasion of the Northeast has caused great harm to the Chinese and Japanese people. The two countries should always be at peace and never fight again.
Japan’s Hakata Port erects a sail-shaped monument; Japan’s Sasebo Port’s square pillar On the stone stele is written”the first step to attract (that is, return from overseas)”; a monument marking the place where Japanese prisoners are repatriated has also been erected on the coast of Huludao in China. However, no matter how majestic and majestic these monuments are, they cannot be compared with the reputation of the people and the monuments of history. The monument that remains in the hearts of people is forever for generations, that is, the broad mind, humanitarianism and peace-loving spirit of the Chinese people!