WeiweiQinling, quiet and quiet Lishan, under the tall confinement, sleeps the first place in Chinese history. An emperor-Qin Shihuang.

From the unification of domestic and foreign talents, to severe torture, extravagance and tyranny, in Chinese history, no emperor has as far-reaching influence as he has on future generations, and no emperor has the same controversial voice as him. Endless.

The mausoleum buried behind Qin Shihuang is full of magical colors.”Hundred officials and strange artifacts from the palace migrated to Zang Manzhi”,”using mercury as rivers, rivers and seas”… These documents about the Mausoleum of Emperor Qin Shihuang make people dream about the underground kingdom of the”one emperor through the ages”.

Terracotta warriors and horses, bronze carriages and horses, stone armor, bronze waterfowl… Every new discovery of the Mausoleum of Emperor Qin Shi Let the world marvel. The terracotta warriors and horses, known as the”eighth wonder of the world”, are just one of the burial pits outside the cemetery. The mausoleum buried deep under the closed soil is constantly stirring the heartstrings of people at home and abroad. Among them are not only the voice of”hope to discover” among the people, but also the imagination of the underground kingdom”like the sky”. In China, no emperor’s mausoleum has attracted the attention of the world like this.

LishanEmperor Mausoleum

As a branch of the Qinling Mountains One, Lishan is a legendary place in Chinese history. During the Western Weekend, King Zhou You staged the”Fenghuo Opera Princes” here; in the prosperous Tang Dynasty, this place witnessed the endless hatred of Emperor Xuanzong of Tang Dynasty and Concubine Yang; in modern times, Lishan was also the place where the”Xi’an Incident” took place. . The mausoleum of Qin Shihuang is located at the foot of Lishan Mountain.

Sima Qian“Historical Records””Burial of the First Emperor Lishan”, Tang Dynasty poet Li Bai’s”Seventy Criminals” Ten thousand, Qitu Lishan Kuma”, there are many epic poems left in history, recording the location of the Mausoleum of Emperor Qin Shihuang and the number of people built. In Lishan, people see a closed tomb similar in shape to the surrounding mountains, and under the cover of the tall mausoleum is a mysterious underground palace.

In the year Yingzheng became the throne at the beginning of his thirteenth year, the construction of his mausoleum began, which lasted thirty-eight years, until the death of Qin Shihuang and the succession of Qin II before the completion of the throne, he was finally caught in the war. Interrupted. The magnificent mausoleum of the first emperor of Qin was designed and constructed according to the funeral system of”things die as things live” and the monarch’s cemetery”Ruoduyi” concept.

In Chinese history, no emperor’s mausoleum can match the mausoleum of Emperor Qin Shihuang. The protection scope of the Mausoleum of the First Emperor of Qin is 20.32 square kilometers. Among them, the key protected area is 2.74 square kilometers. So far, more than 180 burial pits have been discovered in the mausoleum alone. Qin Shi Huang’s mausoleum was built for a long time, used many people, large scale, and rich in burials, all of which are rare in the history of the world.

Archaeological surveys show that the remains of Qin Shihuang’s cemetery are basically divided into two levels:ground architecture and underground architecture. The ground building layout consists of soil sealing, inner and outer walls and ancillary facilities, ritual building dormitories, toilet halls, and ruins of garden temple officials. The layout of the underground buildings mainly includes the underground palace, the burial pit, the burial tomb and the underground drainage system, etc. The burial pits that have been discovered so far are distributed in three relative areas outside the outer city of the cemetery, between the inner and outer cities, and inside the inner city.

Although the underground palace of the Mausoleum of the First Emperor Qin Shihuang has not been opened, archaeological excavations on its periphery have been ongoing. After years of archaeological investigation and excavation and research, more than 600 burial pits and burial tombs of different sizes and shapes and unique connotations have been discovered in the mausoleum of Emperor Qin Shi Huang, and more than 50,000 precious cultural relics including Qin terracotta warriors and horses have been unearthed. Pieces. The Terracotta Warriors and Horses Pit is one of the most famous burial pits in the Mausoleum of the First Emperor of Qin.

In addition, the bronze carts and horses, bronze waterfowl, stone armors, baixi figurines, etc. unearthed in the cemetery of the first emperor of Qin Cultural relics provide physical materials for the study of the military, politics, economy, culture, science and art of the Qin Dynasty. They not only have extremely high historical and artistic value, but also have extremely high scientific research value. Together, these precious cultural relics of the Qin Dynasty constitute a unique cultural landscape with huge volume, various types, and good density of resource entities.

“The Mausoleum of Emperor Qin Shihuang is not only a burial place for an emperor, it also carries the idea of ​​Qin Shihuang to build a grand empire. Among them are the light of thoughts derived from hundreds of schools of thought, but also The mapping of the political system, social structure, capital structure, court life, military system, etc. of the Qin Empire is of great significance to the advancement of Chinese civilization.”Qin Shihuang Said Zhang Weixing, director of the scientific research planning department of the Imperial Mausoleum Museum.

Terracotta Warriors and Horses now

The terracotta warriors and horses are well-known at home and abroad as the”eighth wonder of the world”, and archaeological discoveries show that it is only the burial pit of the Mausoleum of Emperor Qin Shi Huang. Part. The terracotta warriors and horses are full of stories in this world, and they have also raised a veil of the Mausoleum of Emperor Qin Shi Huang for more than two thousand years.

It was the early spring of 1974. A severe drought threatened 800 miles of Qinchuan in western China. Xiyang Village, located at the foot of Lishan Mountain, was no exception. The villagers chose a place on the deserted beach and prepared to dig a large-diameter well to relieve their urgent need.

When digging to a depth of more than 1 meter, a layer of red soil was unexpectedly found. This layer of red clay is extremely hard, and another head goes down, only a”boom” collision sound is heard, sparks are splashing out, but not penetrate. Several young people who were digging wells had to lift their heads with all their strength.

On March 29, 1974, the first pottery piece of the Terracotta Warriors and Horses Army Formation in the Mausoleum of the First Emperor Qin Shihuang was seen again in the powerful excavation. When digging to a depth of more than 3 meters, I found the mutilated body of the pottery figurine, and then digging down, the figurine head, the bronze arrowhead, and the bronze crossbow machine Have appeared. This earthenware human head has long”horns” on the top of the head, wide-open eyes, and two curled beards lined up above the closed lips. People onlookers talked a lot:”This is the temple of God Wa!”

Yuan Zhongyi, who participated in archaeological excavations back then , now 88 years old, he still remembers the first encounter with the terracotta warriors and horses. It was a shocking scene. In the decades that followed, he devoted himself to this underground army both physically and mentally.

Of the four figurine pits discovered by archaeology, one is empty. Experts speculate that due to the peasant uprising in the late Qin Dynasty, Emperor Qin II had to urgently dispatch the”criminals” who built the tomb to fight, and the No. 4 figurines pit was probably not completed due to the war. In the other three warrior pits, a total of about 8,000 pottery figurines and horses were unearthed, as well as a large number of weapons and chariots.

The terracotta warriors and horses are neatly arranged in the warrior’s workshop in combat formation and formation, which truly reproduces the scene of the Qin army on the battlefield. This Qin dynasty legion”like strength like a crossbow, knot like an opportunity”, seems to wait for an order to”if the water accumulates in a thousand renminbi”, surging surgingly, and those who touch it will be destroyed.

Today, the terracotta warriors and horses displayed in the exhibition hall seem to be”grey-headed and earth-faced”, but the unearthed materials show that they are not only”different” but also”colorful”.”Every terracotta warrior has a color. After more than two thousand years of deep burial, the preserved pigments begin to change 15 seconds after being unearthed, and they are completely dehydrated, warped, and peeled within 4 minutes, and some are left in the mud layer. Come on.” said Xia Yin, director of the cultural relics protection department of the Mausoleum of the First Emperor of Qin.

After decades of excavation, observation, research and analysis, Yuan Zhong knows more than 2,000 terracotta warriors and horses that have been unearthed.”I have seen every figurine and made excavation records. I am familiar with tall, short and thin, what clothes to wear, the color when they were unearthed, what hair style they wear, and what shoes to wear.”

Time can go back, and people will see their original image is colorful and gorgeous:vermilion, purple, purple, pink, dark green, pink green, pink purple, pink blue, medium yellow, orange, black, white, ocher and other more than ten colors. A knee-shooting figurine with more complete color preservation is enough to reflect the gorgeousness of the terracotta warriors and horses:wearing a pink-green long coat with an ochre armor, adorned with a scarlet band and white armor, and wearing sky blue pants and pink purple. Leggings.

“Therefore, we cannot understand that the Qin Dynasty is still black. It means that people from all walks of life in the society wear black clothes.” Yuan Zhongyi said, “Through the bright and bright colors of the Qin figurines, we can touch the people of Qin. His emotions and soul are warm and vigorous, rather than low and sad.”

The mystery of the underground palace

Currently, the Mausoleum of Emperor Qin Shihuang The archaeological excavations are only on the periphery, and the core underground palace is still shrouded in mysteries. Demystification is more based on historical documents and existing scientific and technological means to make speculations.

Mystery 1:How deep is the faint palace?

According to the latest archaeological exploration data, there is a large space under the mound, which should be a huge vertical hole excavated when the tomb was built. The pit is about 170 meters long from east to west and 145 meters wide from north to south.

Sima Qian said”crossing the three springs”, while”Han Jiuyi” said”it is already deep”. Explaining how deep is the deepest underground palace after digging to the point where it can no longer be digged? Experts and scholars in the field of Chinese cultural relics, archaeology and geology have also conducted various research and exploration on the depth of Qinling Underground Palace. According to drilling data, the actual depth of the underground palace of the Qin Mausoleum should be close to the depth of the tomb of the No. 1 Qin Gong Cemetery in Zhiyang. It can be estimated that the actual depth from the mouth of the underground palace to the bottom is about 26 meters, and the deepest depth to the surface of the Qin Dynasty is about 37 meters.

Mystery 2:What is”astronomy above, geography below”?

According to Sima Qian’s”Records of History“, the underground palace of the Qin Mausoleum”has astronomy above and geography below.” The famous archaeologist Xia Nai once inferred:“’Astronomy above, geography below” should be painted or line carved on the ceiling of the tomb. The map of the moon, the moon, and the astrology may still be preserved in today’s Lintong Shi Huang Mausoleum.” In recent years, murals similar to”astronomy” and”geography” have been discovered in the Han tomb of Xi’an Jiaotong University. The upper part is the sun, moon, and stars symbolizing the sky, and the lower part is the mural representing the mountains and rivers. It is inferred from this that the upper part of the underground palace of the Qin Mausoleum may be painted with a more complete map of 28 stars, while the lower part is the geography of mountains and rivers represented by mercury. In this underground”kingdom” that symbolizes heaven and earth, Qin Shihuang’s soul can still”look up at astronomy and survey geography” and rule everything here.

Mystery 3:Is there a lot of”mercury” in the underground palace?

The record of Emperor Qin Shihuang’s mausoleum using mercury as rivers and oceans can be found in”Historical Records”, and similar words are also found in”Han Shu”. Modern scientific and technological methods are constantly searching for the answer to the unsettled case of mercury burying in the underground palace of the Qin Mausoleum. The results of many scientific explorations over the years have shown that there is an area of ​​abnormal mercury content with an area of ​​about 12,000 square meters in the center of the soil closure of the Mausoleum of the First Emperor of Qin. From this, the scientists came to a preliminary conclusion:The record of the large amount of mercury buried in the Tomb of the First Emperor in the history books is reliable.

As for why a large amount of mercury should be buried in the underground palace, the Northern Wei scholar Li Daoyuan explained that”using mercury as the river” The sea is based on mercury as the Sidu, Hundred Rivers, and Five Sacred Mountains and nine prefectures, which has geographic power.” On the geographical map of our country, there is the sea in the east and south, and the densely distributed area of ​​mercury in the mausoleum of Emperor Qin Shihuang is located in the southeast of the mausoleum. This may not be a coincidence.

Mystery 4:How much do you know about the hidden treasures in the underground palace?

According to Sima Qian’s”Historical Records”:”Hundred officials and strange artifacts of the palaces and temples migrated to Zangman.” Scholars in the Han Dynasty Liu Xiang /span>I also sighed:”Since ancient times, there has been no burial like the first emperor.” According to historical records, there are countless”golden gooses”,”beads” and”jades” in the underground palace.

Archaeologists unearthed a group of large painted bronze carriages and horses in the excavation on the west side of the underground palace. The shape of the carriage and horse is accurate, and the exquisite decoration is rare in the world. Previously, archaeologists also unearthed a group of wooden carts and horses, except that the carts and horses and the royal official figurines are made of wood, and the rest of the carts and horses are all made of gold, silver, and copper. There are such exquisite burial objects on the outside of the underground palace. The richness of the burial objects and the exquisite collections inside are full of reverie.

Don’t excavate temporarily

For the underground palace of the Emperor Qin Shihuang, the dispute about excavation or not has never ceased. Many people hope to open this emperor’s mausoleum, a glimpse, and solve many mysteries that plagued the archaeological and historical circles.

“In the archaeological world, the understanding of this issue is very consistent-it cannot be excavated. In the professional field, this is not controversial.” said Zhang Tianzhu, a researcher at the Museum of Emperor Qin Shihuang’s Mausoleum.

He said that any kind of excavation of underground cultural relics will inevitably cause some degree of destruction or damage to the cultural relics. Therefore, most of what we do are rescue excavations. For example, cultural relics have been destroyed due to construction, theft and other human factors or natural disasters, and rescue excavations must be carried out to protect the cultural relics. But unless it is necessary, it is generally not actively explored.

Like the painted on the terracotta warriors and horses, it can only be kept for a few seconds after being unearthed. The destruction of colors by air is”so fast that it makes people too late to take a picture.” If the information on the cultural relics is”destroyed” because of the immature protection technology, such a loss is really distressing. (Reporters Jiang Chenrong, Yang Yimiao)

Source:Xinhua Daily Telegraph