Source:People’s Daily Online

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Cangshan Mountain has lush vegetation. Photographed by Yang Jipei (People’s Vision)

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Dali City, Yunnan Province. Photograph by Yang Jipei (People’s Vision)

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Cangshan and Erhai. Photographed by Yang Jipei (People’s Vision)

Core reading

“Cangshan is not a thousand-year-old painting, Erhai Lake Stringless Wanguqin”. Cangshan Mountain is an important part of the World Geopark and National Nature Reserve. It is also an important water source for Erhai Lake, with rich biodiversity.

Local amendments to regulations prohibit mountain quarrying, construction of breeding bases, artificial breeding and wild release, protect the ecological environment of Cangshan Mountain, and maintain biodiversity.

Take the ropeway all the way up, passing the deciduous trees, the Yunnan Pinus sylvestris, which are sowed by air, and the bamboo and shrubs, to the top of the mountain, only Rhododendron and fir-here is Cangshan.

Strengthen patrol and ban the mining of marble

corner peaks, blade ridges, ice Buckets, moraines…The altitude is over 3,600 meters, and the remains of the last glacial period of the Quaternary-Dali glacial period-more than 10,000 years ago have begun to increase. In 2014, Cangshan Mountain, a”natural geological history book” that took more than 2 billion years to nurture, was included in the World Geopark. As a result, Cangshan Mountain has received more attention and received stricter protection.

Nowadays, the naming place of this marble has been completely banned from mining marble.”A piece of good-quality marble can be sold for tens of thousands of yuan. In the past, individual people would take risks because of this. However, in recent years, the situation has improved.” Gu Tinghui, a staff member of the Yinqiao Patrol Station of the Cangshan Conservation Administration of Dali City, told reporters In the past, the illegal mining of marble was fined several hundred yuan, and the cost of illegality was far lower than the profit. However, the “Regulations on the Protection and Management of Cangshan Mountains in Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province” revised in 2019 clarified that mountain excavation, quarrying, mining, etc. destroy landscapes, vegetation, Terrain activities must not only be restored to the original state within a time limit or be demolished within a time limit, but also the illegal gains must be confiscated, and a fine of 500,000 yuan up to 1 million yuan must be imposed.

The former mines have now been blocked, but the risk of illegal mining in some open-pit marble mining areas still exists. In order to protect the Cangshan marble, guards like Gu Tinghui are on duty 24 hours a day, patrolling during the day and patrolling at night.”Evening and early morning are high-risk periods for illegal mining, and night patrols are the norm. If you encounter reports from the masses, you have to stand guard.” Gu Tinghui said.

Mountain roads are difficult to travel. It takes 40 to 50 minutes to go from the duty room to the open-pit mine. Yuan Yazhi, deputy director of the Dali Cangshan Branch of the Cangshan and Erhai National Nature Reserve Administration, expects that the real-time monitoring system under construction near the old mining area can be operated earlier, so that Cangshan can be better protected.

With a good environment and an orderly development of artificial breeding, Cangshan has gradually become a paradise for wild animals

“Nowadays, places with better climate and soil conditions are all trees.” Yuan Yazhi told reporters. On the one hand, it is because of the persistent environmental education in the local area. On the other hand, it is also because everyone’s life is better.”In the past, trees were cut to burn firewood. Now electricity is used. Who wants to go up the mountain to cut firewood?”

With many trees and good environment, Cangshan has gradually become a paradise for wild animals. According to reports, the biodiversity of Cangshan is very rich. But on the other hand, although the trees are lush, individual species still need artificial breeding due to their own characteristics.

In 2015, Yang Tangliang, deputy director of the Cangshan Branch of Cangshan and Erhai National Nature Reserve Administration of Cangshan and Erhai National Nature Reserve, discovered three rare plants Dragon Nv flower during inspection. Although they can bloom and bear fruit normally, they never see seedlings. After four or five years of no movement, Yang Tangliang and his colleagues began to try artificial breeding, but the cuttings failed, so his eyes returned to seed reproduction.

The dragon girl flower belongs to the Magnoliaceae. Yang Tangliang analyzed that it may be after the seeds fell. The water is not enough, and the slow inactivation leads to the inability to reproduction,”In the past, there was a lot of snow in Cangshan, so reproduction was no problem. Now that the seasonal drought is long, the possibility of seed inactivation is greater.”

Yang Tangliang thought of the sand reservoir-bury the seeds in the sand and sprinkle water in it from time to time to keep it moist.”Don’t water too much, or it will suffocate the seeds; but don’t dry them too much, otherwise the seeds may become inactivated.” In 2019, the reserve finally became In the greenhouse, young dragon nv flower seedlings are cultivated. Yang Tangliang looks forward to the day when the seedlings in the greenhouse will grow up and be able to return to the wild again.

Artificial breeding and wild release have long been successful cases in Cangshan. From 2009 to 2015, Fang Yihao, who was still studying at Dali University, spent 6 years experimenting with the artificial breeding of Cangshan Golden Pheasant under the guidance of his teacher. In order to facilitate the release, at the beginning of the construction of the artificial breeding base, I chose the depths of Cangshan, far away from the crowd. It takes 3 hours to go to the base from Dali University, and Fang Yihao simply lived in the mountains.

In 2015, Fang Yihao withdrew the net, dozens of golden pheasant walked out of the net leisurely and returned to Cangshan.”The wild is the best destination for wild animals.” Fang Yihao said.

“Although it is a second-level national key protected wildlife, golden pheasant is not uncommon in Cangshan now.” Fang Yihao, a teacher at the East Himalaya Research Institute of Dali University, said frankly. The significance of the artificial breeding project of golden pheasant is not to supplement the wild population of the golden pheasant, but to master its artificial breeding and wild Complete technology for release. Fang Yihao estimates that the population of Golden Pheasant in Cangshan now exceeds 10,000. Yang Tangliang’s observations during the patrol also confirmed this estimate:“Every day at 10 o’clock in the morning and 4 to 5 o’clock in the afternoon, as long as you patrol the mountain, you can basically see groups of golden pheasants in three to five.”

Protection of Erhai Lake Cangshan, production and living habits are changing with it

The nineteen peaks of Cangshan Mountain gave birth to the Eighteen Streams. There are many trees in the mountains and the mountain streams live. Yang Xianshe, a waterman in Heyang Village, Yinqiao Town, Dali City, led reporters up the Jinxi all the way up the river. Near the agricultural irrigation sluice, the water depth is nearly one meter.

In the past, the local people used to draw water at random; nowadays, after installing a sluice, the water supply requires approval from a higher level, and a waterman like Yang Xianshe will open the sluice to release the water. At first, some farmers found it troublesome, but now they are getting used to it. Yang Xianshe said that in the past, water in the village was free, but it was also wasted. Nowadays, instead of centralized and unified water supply, every household knows that water is cherished.

Not only the domestic water, but also the production water is more and more economized. Dafeng Road is a road between Erhai Lake and Cangshan Mountains.”Below Dafeng Road, Irrigation gives priority to the use of farmland tail water for circular irrigation; in the dry season, it needs to be reported to the city for unified approval Pumping Erhai water for irrigation. However, for the plots above Dafeng Road like Heyang Village, because the pumping station is not covered, they still need to be irrigated with Cangshan streams during the dry season.” said Yang Chunshu, director of the Dali City Water Affairs Bureau, in 2020, Dali City Agricultural Irrigation The water consumption was 24.57 million cubic meters, of which nearly 30%became reservoir water, a decrease of more than 12%from the 28.1 million cubic meters in 2019.

To protect Erhai Cangshan, production and living habits must be changed accordingly. Nowadays, the planting structure in the area above Dafeng Road has changed-now Heyang Village is gone rice Planting is replaced by drought-producing crops such as corn. “Rice planting requires soaking the field. Planting corn requires irrigation only during spring sowing. When the rainy season comes, natural precipitation is basically sufficient. Now the irrigation water consumption in the village is half of what it used to be.” Yang Xianshe said.

“People’s Daily” (14th edition on April 29, 2021)