Huawei’s subsidiary Hai Since its establishment in 2004, SEMI Semiconductor has been among the global semiconductorTOP10 list for more than 10 years. This growth rate is nearly here. The semiconductor industry for decades is unprecedented. But this has also attracted the attention of the United States, and in the past year, it has been continuously restricted by this method, which has caused TSMC to be unable to produce 5Nano process chip, Kirin 9000 chip is likely to become a swan song.
Many people may wonder that the level of technology in China is The world is already very good, why are you stumped by a small chip? Is it possible that chip technology is more difficult than”two bombs and one star”?
Two bombs and one star
Objectively speaking, the difficulty of two bombs and one satellite and the chip cannot be compared, because they are completely different things. Two bombs and one star refer to
Nuclear bomb (e.g.:atom bomb, Hydrogen bomb), missiles and satellites. Whether a nuclear bomb can be manufactured, there is a very important factor:nuclear material production. During World War II, the United Kingdom finally chose to cooperate with the United States because the production of raw materials could not keep up; and Germany is also because of the founder of quantum mechanicsHeisenberg made an error in the calculation of raw materials, which made him believe that Germany had insufficient raw materials, and ultimately failed to produce an atomic bomb.
So,Whether a country can produce an atomic bomb, it’s very big The extent depends on the preparation capacity of nuclear bomb raw materials. Since countries around the world monitor the raw materials of nuclear bombs very closely, this has also led to many countries not being able to master enough nuclear bomb raw materials. Therefore, very few countries possess nuclear weapons.
ManufacturingHow hard is the chip?
But the principle of chip manufacturing is completely different from that of the atomic bomb. Chip manufacturing belongs to Precision manufacturing can be said to be the crown of modern industrial technology. How precise is it?
We often hear5nm chip, 7nm chip , The”nano” here is 10^(-9) meters, which is about 10 the size of an atom Times, it refers toin the chip”The thickness of the grid“,The grid is a proper term. If you don’t understand it, it’s okay. You just need to remember that hundreds of millions of rice can be arranged on a grain of rice.Transistor. Take the latest Huawei Kirin 9000 chip, which belongs to the 5-nanometer process. This chip integrates 15.3 billion transistors.
To process such a chip, at least hundreds or even thousands of processes are required, covering dozens of disciplines of knowledge, and the manufacturing equipment involved is countless, including precision Optics, precision chemicals and precision machine tools are currently the most top Technology. Generally speaking, there are three steps to make a chip. Let’s take a mobile phone chip as an example.
- First step:Design
There is a company called ARM that has a lot of basic models. Companies in need can buy and design on this basic model. The software needed for the design is EDA. There are three EDA software in the world, two The home is in the United States, one is a German company, but the headquarters is in the United States. In other words, starting from the design, a large number of patents are in the hands of American companies.
- Step 2:Manufacturing
After designing the drawing, hand it over to the manufacturing chip The world’s top company in this field is TSMC. The equipment needed for manufacturing is called lithography machine. The world’s top lithography machine comes from in ASML in the Netherlands has a large amount of technology integration on the lithography machine, which requires top companies in various countries to supply it. Because the United States has a large number of technologies in this area accumulation, many technologies here belong to American companies.
- Step 3:Closed beta
The packaging and testing is just to add a protective cover to the chip, and then test whether it is easy to use. Our country is not behind in this aspect, but we still do it on the contrary. It’s not bad.
Here is just a rough introduction to these three steps, in fact it is much more complicated than you think. Take the manufacturing step as an example. In the manufacturing process, the issue of raw material purification is also involved. It is to convert silicon dioxide into polysilicon, and then refine polysilicon into Single crystal silicon, and finally cut the single crystal silicon into small discs. This is also called:wafer. To put it plainly, manufacturing is to arrange the components on the wafer according to the design drawings. Here, the purity of polysilicon is very high, and it needs to reach 99.999999999%. This technology is better done in Japan, and our country is still unable to produce wafers of such purity.
In addition, the wafer needs to be flat enough, which also requires long-term technology accumulation. Another example:Many other materials are needed in the manufacturing process, such as photoresist. In this respect, Japan is also doing better.
So, to make a chip, a lot of technology is actually needed. The technology is highly confidential and involves companies in many countries, mainly US companies. Mainly, there are also some European, American and Japanese companies that have gradually accumulated these technologies over the past few decades and have extremely strong Technical barriers.
China core film challenge
Before Huawei’s HiSilicon has achieved semiconductor top10 in more than ten years and has shocked many Western countries. This has made Huawei HiSili What you need to know is that Huawei HiSilicon has only designed a good enough chip with EDA software, but it can’t make it by itself. Therefore, in order to bypass these technical barriers, it is very difficult to make a high-end mobile phone chip by yourself, not overnight. It takes our country’s technical personnel to work together and spend many years conquer thousands or even tens of thousands A technical problem, this will be an extremely vast project.
Although the road ahead is long and it is difficult to see the end, semiconductor technology is The importance of language is self-evident. Therefore, no matter how difficult it is, we have to overcome it, even if it is a high price.