May 2, 1958, JapanNagasakiThe most famous Hamaya Department Store is crowded with Japanese people who come to visit and shop.
What is being held here is an exposition called “Chinese Stamps, Paper Cutting, Silk”.
In the venue, in addition to the exquisite handicrafts, the most eye-catching thing is a bright red five-star red flag, which shows to the Japanese people that these products come from a new China.
However, at 4:20 in the afternoon that day, three men with fierce faces rushed into the venue and could not help but tore off the five-star red flag.
These three individuals were arrested by the Nagasaki police and admitted that they belonged to a right-wing organization called the”Juqi Comrades Association”. They claimed that the Chinese flag was destroyed only because of them. dislike!
This incident shocked the”Nagasaki Flag Incident” between China and Japan.
This incident has greatly hurt the feelings of the Chinese people. There is no doubt about it. However, what makes people wonder why such a bad thing happened suddenly when Sino-Japanese relations were gradually thawing. What about the event?
Today, the postscript will talk about the ins and outs of the”Nagasaki Flag Incident”.
01 Shearing is constantly arranging and chaos
According to the existing historical records, at least since the Han Dynasty, there has been an official Interactions at different levels.
In the “Hou Han Shu. Dongyi Biography”, it is recorded that during the time of Emperor Guangwu of the Han Dynasty, the Wanu country sent a certain”doctor” to”Fenggong Dynasty Congratulations”.”Emperor Guangwu also gave them a seal, acknowledging the vassal status of the Wonu country.
This seal is the famous “Han Wei (Japanese) Slave King Seal”, and it is a”National Treasure-Class Cultural Relic” certified by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.
——By the way, to commemorate the discovery of this seal, Fukuoka City also built a park specifically , I am proud to put the seal on the top, and place it in the park grandiosely.
Wonu country is A small princely state in Kyushu, but their tribute behavior undoubtedly set a precedent for the exchanges between China and Japan.
Since then, the exchanges between Japan and China have basically not been interrupted. It is no exaggeration to say that the so-called Japanese culture has grown out of the soil of Chinese culture.
Although the”noisy neighbor” of Japan has caused great suffering to China since the end of the Qing Dynasty, it may be difficult to realize the real separation of the two countries.
However, since the founding of New China, Sino-Japanese relations are in an embarrassing situation of”cutting and arranging and turning into chaos.”
On the one hand, many people of insight in Japan believe that Sino-Japanese relations are an indispensable part in the process of Japan’s reconstruction; otherwise, Japan would never be able to embark on a path of peace and prosperity. .
For this reason, in 1949, Japan established organizations such as the”China-Japan Trade Promotion Association” and the”China-Japan Trade Parliamentary Alliance” to promote the normalization of Sino-Japanese relations.
On April 29, 1950, the Japanese Senate passed the”Resolution on Promoting Japan-China Trade”, In this document, it is clearly stated that in the future, Japan will develop relations and trade with the”People’s Republic of China.”
On the other hand, under the trend of world polarization created by the”Cold War”, the United States, out of its own interests, tried its best to prevent Japan from moving closer to China. The U.S. Secretary of State Dulles once said:
“If Japan enters the communist camp and the Soviet Union, China, and Japan are combined, the situation will become extremely difficult.”
Therefore, since the 1950s, the United States completely gave up. The”neutral” position given to Japan after World War II began to regard Japan as a bridgehead for restricting communist countries in Asia, and successively signed documents such as the Japan-US Security Treaty and the Mutual Defense Treaty. Tucked into the “first island chain consisting of “Japan—Okinawa—Philippines”“.
The issue of relationship is complicated.
02 Japan’s small abacus
Actually, for the new China, the small actions of the United States were completely unexpected.
Since the War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea, the United States has formed gangs and led a group of”brothers”, clamoring for”embargoes” and”blockades” against New China. To put it plainly, China It’s no surprise.
After all, although New China is backward, it has 9.6 million square kilometers of land and a population of close to 550 million as the foundation. If you really live behind closed doors, it’s no big deal.
But Japan, but it really can’t stand it.
In the eyes of the United States, Japan is nothing more than its munitions factory in Asia. Therefore, since the end of the war, most of the aid the United States has given to Japan has flowed into automobiles, machinery, and chemicals. Waiting for war-related industries.
As for industries that are closely related to the lives of ordinary people, that is not within the consideration of Americans.
In addition, As a resource-poor island country, foreign trade was originally the backbone of Japan’s economy. It is not in Japan’s interest to stare at China’s huge market.
Therefore, since the end of World War II, Japan has been holding the bowl from”American Dad” while looking at the big pot of China, wondering how to eat it in the pot.
Thinking about it, the Japanese cabinet came up with a trick called “Separation of Politics and Economy”——
October 18, 1951 , Japanese Prime Minister Shigeru Yoshida said this when he was defending the Taiwan issue in the National Assembly:
“Now the CCP is not recognized by the United States, and the (Taiwan) National Government is not recognized by the United Kingdom. Even if the right of choice is in Japan, its exercise must be decided on the basis of considering the relations between countries. ….. I have never given Dulles a guarantee of recognition of the (Taiwan) National Government.”
On October 29, Shigeru Yoshida stated again:
“(Set up in Japan) The purpose of overseas offices, including Taiwan’s overseas offices, are all business…If the CCP allows us to set up in Shanghai For overseas offices, we can also set them up.”
From the words of Shigeru Yoshida, it is not difficult to see his little abacus:
At that time According to the actual situation in Japan,”American Dad” really can’t afford to offend, but on the issue of China, Japan has determined the number of ways”can’t afford to hide”. If you can’t make a statement, you won’t make a statement, and you can’t participate if you don’t participate. , Leaving enough for himself.
As long as it does not express its position, Japan will have a bottom line for negotiations with China. Look, although I did not recognize you, I did not recognize him either? Let’s talk about the next topic, let’s talk about doing business!
I have to say that Shigeru Yoshida deserves to be a veteran politician.
To use”Concord”, the old man Yoshida Shigeru was”sly and cunningly”.
After Shigeru Yoshida, the Hatoyama cabinet and the Ishibashi cabinet of Japan continued to use this method, and they continued to”send autumn waves” to China.
For the small abacus of the Japanese government, the leaders of New China knew very well—
As early as the early 1950s, Premier Zhou Enlai Point out:
“Japan is a close neighbor of China…The development of Sino-Japanese trade and economic exchanges has its bright future.”
In October 1954, when Premier Zhou Enlai met with the Japanese parliamentary delegation, he even made a meaningful talk:
“We recognize the Japanese people’s Japan. The Japanese people vote for whoever gets more votes. We recognize whoever organizes the government. The Japanese government has taken the opposite approach. The Chinese people don’t want Chiang Jieshi, but the Japanese government recognizes the representative of Taiwan. It is the Japanese government that does not recognize us and adopts an unfriendly attitude towards us. The United States For the Japanese, this is very unfortunate and hinders the development of Sino-Japanese relations.”
Premier Zhou’s remarks expressed three levels of meaning——
First, the New China has goodwill towards the Japanese people and the Japanese government, there is no doubt about this;
Second, you do not recognize the New China now, mainly because Because there are Americans pressing on their heads, we understand this very well. The official exchanges are not possible, so can the people communicate;
Thirdly, the Japanese government should not always think about being”Two-faced”, if Sino-Japanese relations are to truly develop, sooner or later you must have a clear statement!
The needle is hidden in the cotton, and you can stop at it. This is the diplomatic style of Premier Zhou, the so-called great power style , There is nothing more than this.
It is certain that Zhou The Japanese government fully understood what the Prime Minister said-everyone is an adult, and tacit understanding is the most important thing.
So, shortly after Premier Zhou made his speech, in December 1954, the Japanese National Assembly approved the invitation Immediately after the decision of the Chinese Embassy of Commerce to visit Japan, Japan announced that it would increase imports of 80,000 tons of soybeans from China and prepared US$7.8 million in foreign exchange as the cost of continuing imports.
In March 1955, the China Council for the Promotion of International Trade delegation was invited to visit Japan and visited Tokyo, Osaka, Kobe and other regions have been warmly welcomed by the Japanese people.
It can be said that during this period of time, the two countries of New China and Japan have gradually embarked on an ice-breaking road.
03 The figure of a saboteur
The people-to-people exchanges between New China and Japan are getting closer and closer. The Chinese people are very happy, and the Japanese people Very happy, but Chiang Kai-shek in Taiwan is very unhappy.
As early as when Shigeru Yoshida implicitly expressed his desire to develop economic and trade relations with the People’s Republic of China, Chiang Kai-shek was furious and put pressure on Japan through the United States to resolutely suppress this sign.
Under the pressure of the United States, on April 28, 1952, the Yoshida Cabinet of Japan and the National Government signed the “Peace Treaty between Japan and the Republic of China”, which is Commonly known as the “Japan-Taiwan Treaty”.
With the treaty as a guarantee, Chiang Kai-shek finally breathed a sigh of relief.
However, what Chiang Kai-shek did not expect was that in Yoshida Shigeru’s view, this”Japan-Taiwan Treaty” was basically a pile of waste paper.
In Shigeru Yoshida’s own memoirs, he commented on the”Japan-Taiwan Treaty”——
“This signing The treaty did not recognize that the National Government is the regime representing the whole of China. I affirm this in the Senate and the House of Representatives that are reviewing this treaty whenever I get the chance.”
If Chiang Kai-shek sees this In other words, the expression must be quite exciting.
For this reason, after the signing of the”Japan-Taiwan Treaty”, non-governmental exchanges and economic trade between Japan and the People’s Republic of China turned instead Although Chiang Kai-shek is angry, he can only speak negatively about the situation that is flourishing.
However, in February 1957, Chiang Kai-shek finally waited for his ally, Kishisuke, to become the 56th Prime Minister of Japan.
Kishin Shinsuke is a diehard Right-wing activist. As early as 1936, he served as the Deputy Minister of Industry of the Puppet Manchukuo State and other positions, as well as Tojo Hideki and others. Also known as the”Five Giants of Manchuria.”
After Japan surrendered, Kishi Nobusuke was designated as a second-class war criminal and was thrown into the Sugamo Prison in Tokyo.
Since Kishi Nobusuke was mainly responsible for economic and munitions work during the war, he did not receive the attention of the Americans. In 1948, on the second day after Hideki Tojo and other war criminals were executed, Nobusuke Kishi He was out of prison.
For such a person to become the Prime Minister of Japan, Sino-Japanese relations are of course not easy.
Sure enough, shortly after taking office, Kishi Nobusuke visited Southeast Asia and South Asia, preaching the”China Threat Theory” everywhere, calling New China an”aggressor country” and a”communist threat” around Japan. .
On the way back to China, Kishi Nosuke made a special turn and went to Taiwan to meet Chiang Kai-shek. He patted his chest and promised that he would”deepen cooperation” with Taiwan and even support Chiang Kai-shek in”recovering the mainland.”
As soon as this sentence came out, he was scratching Chiang Kai-shek’s itches, and he wanted Kishi Shinsuke as a confidant.
However, the economic and trade between New China and Japan is no small matter for Japanese companies and Japanese citizens. Under the pressure of public opinion, Kishi Shinsuke did not dare to risk the world’s ill will to forcibly stop the non-governmental trade between China and Japan.
For this reason, after the opening of the Nagasaki Expo, when Chiang Kai-shek learned that the five-star red flag had appeared on the venue, he was furious and immediately instructed Chang Jiakai, Taiwan’s”consul” in Nagasaki, to Take off this five-star red flag!
When Chiang Kai-shek made a speech, Chang Jiakai naturally did not dare to neglect, and immediately ran to the Nagasaki city government to protest.
However, it is the Nagasaki branch of the China-Japan Trade Promotion Association that held this exhibition. The members are all respectable figures in the local area. The Nagasaki city government did not dare to offend easily, so Nagasaki The staff of the Qi city government just dealt with a few words indifferently, and asked Chang Jiakai to leave.
Seeing the attitude of the Nagasaki City Government, Chang Jiakai understood that it would be useless to rely on official means. After thinking about it, Chang Jiakai came up with a bad idea-don’t you not pick it? I’m looking for someone to pick it!
Next, the scene at the beginning of this article happened.
The next day, in Chang Jiakai’s telegram to Taiwan, he explained in detail his arrangement——
After the Nagasaki city government touched a soft nail , He arranged for the secretary of the consulate Wang Xiwu to contact the Juqi Comrades’ Association. Under Wang Xiwu’s instigation, the Juqi Comrades’ Association sent three members to the exhibition site with Wang Xiwu and tore off the five-star red flag.
Furthermore, Chang Jiakai also triumphantly claimed that when the Japanese police took these three people away, “Neither the museum nor Secretary Wang came forward” would not happen. Bad effects!
“A friend who is dead but not a poor person”, this Chang Jiakai is not authentic.
04 The Wrath of Lion Dance
After learning of the”Nagasaki Flag Incident”, the Kishi Shinsuke cabinet responded quickly— -A fine of 500 yen and release of 3 people.
This is a naked provocation to New China!
However, what Kishisuke did not expect is that what he is facing is no longer the poor and weak old China, but a woken male lion!
After the incident, Premier Zhou was furious and said:
“The Japanese government is not responsible for this incident and does not apologize. ….. I must arouse great indignation from the Chinese people!”
Soon, the Japanese government understood what the Chinese people’s indignation meant in the words of Premier Zhou——
On May 8, the Chinese government announced that it would stop issuing import and export licenses to Japanese companies, and business delegations in Japan would return home immediately;
May 9, China’s official radio station Send power to all Japanese companies, announcing that all the existing trade contracts between Chinese and Japanese companies are invalid;
On May 11, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs delivered a speech, starting from today, severing China and Japan. All economic and cultural exchanges between them;
At the same time, the New Chinese Navy dispatched a large number of ships to severely apprehend Japanese fishing boats entering the prohibited fishing zone in the East China Sea;
According to Japanese statistics, 1262 contracts of 110 Japanese companies were terminated due to this incident, and the amount of losses reached 35 million pounds.
New China’s series of sanctions completely dampened Kishi Nobuyuki. He did not expect that he would attack Japan more than 20 years ago. How can China, which is the only one, become so tough now?
Therefore, when he was re-elected, Kishi Nobusuke said very much that he had not sent a written apology to China before, because this method was improper and due to the relationship between the two countries. , I hope to restore Sino-Japanese trade.
Kishisuke’s implication is to dress himself up as a pissed daughter-in-law——The reason why I can’t apologize is because the United States is holding me down. Everyone should be considerate of each other. Let it go!
In the diplomatic field, some things can indeed be compromised, but there are also some things that are absolutely not bargaining.
Faced with Kishi Shinsuke’s reluctance to admit his mistakes and want to take advantage, Premier Zhou replied very happily—
On April 10, 1960, Premier Zhou was in the second session At the second meeting of the People’s Congress, it was clearly stated:
“If the Kishi Shinsuke government does not abandon its hostile policy towards China, Sino-Japanese relations will never improve. The current abnormal state of Sino-Japanese relations is entirely responsible for the Kishi Nobusuke government!”
In the face of Premier Zhou’s righteous condemnation, how will Kishi Nobusuke respond? We have already I don’t know–because more than two months later, he had to resign desperately because of the forcible passage of the”New Japan-US Security Treaty,” which caused an uproar in Japan.
Since then, Kishi has been hidden behind the scenes of Japanese politics until 46 years later, his grandson Abe Shinzo After becoming the Prime Minister of Japan, the name Kishi Nobusuke was once again associated with Japan’s supreme power.
I have to say that the”Nagasaki Flag Incident” is important to the relationship between New China and Japan. It was a huge blow. It was not until 14 years later, when New China and Japan formally established diplomatic relations, that Sino-Japanese relations returned to normal tracks.
However, the spirit of adherence to principles and daring to fight demonstrated by the New China’s diplomats headed by Premier Zhou in this incident has once again made the world understand a truth-China, absolutely Don’t be insulted!