When Mao Zedong was young, he advocated that &34; his husband should be a stranger to the world, read strange books, make strange friends, do strange things, and be a strange man&34;, which made him gain”Mao Qi” is the nickname. The prerequisite for making friends with and appointing Heqi people is to know people. Tang Taizong once sighed:”Which generation has no talents? But he suffers from relic but does not know his ears.”
Mao Zedong also borrowed from Bai Juyi’s poem:”The test jade has to be burned for three days, and it takes seven years to distinguish the material.” When the mountains are leaking and the pearl is covered in dust, it is difficult to know how to make good use of and appoint people on their merits.
How does Mao Zedong think of old comrades and old comrades who have been in the same boat for decades? How does he know how to know people and do good jobs? Let’s look at his comments on important leading cadres in the party, and one or two can be learned.
Zhou Enlai:the best candidate for the role of prime minister
Zhou Enlai’s name”Zhou Gong” originally originated from Cultural circles and non-party people. But the name”Gong Zhou” is indeed the best explanation of Zhou Enlai’s great career in life. Zhou Gong was the virtuous minister of the Zhou dynasty, and Cao Cao once famously said”Zhou Gong spit and feed, the world returns to the heart”. Mao Zedong also recognized such a name.
Soon after the founding of New China, Mao Zedong’s letter to Liu Yazi wrote:”Zhou Gong does have the work to spit and hold.”He used this to illuminate Zhou Enlai’s diligent, ethical, and capable governance, and secretly praised him for his true centripetal force and cohesiveness for”the world to return to the heart”, and he was also a communist Praise for the spirit of selfless dedication of the revolutionary cause.
In March 1949, the Second Plenary Session of the Seventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China was about to leave Xibaipo and enter Beiping. At the meeting, Mao Zedong mentioned the structure and candidates of the first-generation leadership after entering Peking, but he was unable to make any conclusions for a long time, but only said:Zhou Enlai will definitely participate in government work, and his nature is equivalent to that of a cabinet prime minister.
Different from Mao Zedong’s broad-minded leadership temperament, Zhou Enlai cleverly combined the elegant temperament of traditional Chinese classical Confucian scholars with that of proletarian revolutionaries. Melt into one.
Mao Zedong’s evaluation of his character is half”tiger”, Half of”monkey spirit”, the Japanese scholar Yuhei Rashimoto’s more intuitive interpretation of this comment is that the extremely different dual personalities of the eagle and the dove are lurking in his body.
Zhou Enlai and Mao Zedong’s dispositions are very different, so the division of labor between them is also completely different.
Mao Zedong is a far-sighted policy maker and maker, and a concrete representative of communism in China, while Zhou Enlai is a cautious and meticulous executor who is always on the job. This is the experience of the two people who have worked together for 40 years, and it is also Zhou Enlai’s positioning of himself. He considers himself not a”handsome” talent.
Later generations will evaluate the seamless cooperation between the two as”It’s Mao, and it’s in the week.”
Although Zhou Enlai is easy-going and gentle, he is extremely principled. His”tiger aura” and”monkey aura” are reflected in his adherence to strong principles and flexibility when handling affairs.
Before the founding of New China, Mao Zedong asked Zhou Enlai to preside over the United Front and diplomatic work for a long time,The Xi’an Incident, the Southern Anhui Incident, the Chongqing Negotiations, and the Peking Military Dispatch were everywhere left with the image of Zhou Enlai fighting against Confucianism and fighting thousands of miles; After the founding of New China, Zhou Enlai served as the first term of the Republic Prime Minister, concurrently serves as Minister of Foreign Affairs.
Internal affairs In terms of economic foundation, state-level construction such as the party, government, and military, or superstructure fields such as science, education, and culture, Zhou Enlai has devoted a lot of effort and made groundbreaking contributions to enable the healthy and orderly development of various fields.
On the international stage, Zhou Enlai put forward the”Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence”, regardless of whether they are poor or rich, large or small countries are treated equally. Zhou Enlai uses him Outstanding diplomatic talents and attitude of benevolence and tolerance have refused to give way to key issues, bit by bit, gaining international discourse space for the new republic, and winning status and dignity for the Chinese nation.
In the 1970s, the first leaders of the Republic have entered their old age. Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai have experienced The old comrades-in-arms and partners of the Republic of China for 40 years have also maintained a deep friendship. In 1974, when preparing for the Fourth National People’s Congress, Mao Zedong still believed that Zhou Enlai was the best candidate for the role of Prime Minister, saying:”The Prime Minister He is still our prime minister.”
After 27 years in office, Premier Zhou Enlai, who worked hard for the Republic, died of a terminal illness. . Millions of people in the capital spontaneously sent Ten Miles to the Prime Minister. Mao Zedong, who was unable to go to condolences on the sick bed, couldn’t help crying after hearing the nurse’s news of Zhou Enlai’s death, and he didn’t say a word for a long time.
Liu Shaoqi:A doctor who hit the nail on the head
Mao Zedong In a meeting of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee in June 1937, it was stated that Shaoqi had rich experience in leading mass struggles and handling internal party relations. He understands the dialectics of practical work, and systematically points out the diseases that the party has suffered on this issue in the past, and he is a doctor who hit the nail on the head.
In 1923, Liu Shaoqi and Li Lisan led several labor movements that attracted national attention. Beginning in the 1930s, the widespread leftism in the work of the White Zone almost wiped out the party organization of the Northern Bureau. After Liu Shaoqi was transferred to the Northern Bureau, he quickly figured out the crux of the problem and prevented the expansion of the left-leaning wrong influence.
He worked non-stop to rebuild the party organization, rescued the arrested comrades, and rebuilt a strong team. Mao Zedong called him”the representative of the correct line of work in the White Zone.”
After the situation in the Northern Bureau stabilized, he systematically sorted out the crux of the issue and prescribed a”prescription”, which he classified as”Regarding the White District and the Party’s Mass Work”The article, delivered a report at the Central Political Conference, won the clear-cut support of Mao Zedong.
Then he followed the CPC Central Committee to establish the Central Plains Bureau, implemented the policy of”consolidating North China and developing Central China”, and independently opened up the”Xiaozhugou” base area behind enemy lines to make It has become a revolutionary sacred land comparable to Ruijin;
After the Southern Anhui Incident, Liu Shaoqi organized the reconstruction of the New Fourth Army, which not only frustrated the Kuomintang’s attempt to destroy our army, It has also grown into a powerful force comparable to the Eighth Route Army; led by Liu Shaoqi, the land reform movement that has been gradually perfected from the May 4th Directive before the founding of the People’s Republic of China has completely destroyed the two entrenched nations in China. Thousand-year feudal land system.
Looking at Liu Shaoqi’s history in the party, it can be found that Mao Zedong’s evaluation of him is also”smart on the nail.” Liu Shaoqi can always find the crux of the government work and deal with it, the effect is often immediate, and several times in time after the symptoms expand The deterioration was stopped, and the”symptoms” were cured.
In 1963, the editorial department of the People’s Daily drafted the Second Comment on the Open Letter of the Central Committee of the CPSU. The manuscript was”The Chinese Marxist-Leninists represented by Comrade Mao Zedong are resisting the influence of Stalin’s mistakes.”
After Mao Zedong’s review, he deliberately put up a pen to add Liu Shaoqi’s name to”Chinese Marxist-Leninists represented by Comrade Mao Zedong and Comrade Liu Shaoqi.” Such an evaluation affirmed Liu Shaoqi’s outstanding contribution to the construction of communist theory, which is unique in the party.
Zhu De:Measurement is as big as the sea, and the will is as strong as steel
Zhu De is hailed as the”Red Army”Father”, after the founding of the People’s Republic of China, he even ranked first among the ten founding marshals. Zhu De’s character is broad and honest, humble and loyal. Mao Zedong’s evaluation of him is”measures are as big as the sea, and will be as strong as steel.”
If Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai are a famous combination in government affairs, Mao Zedong and Zhu De are the “best partners” in the military. As early as the Beiyang period, Zhu De was already the brigade commander of the Kuomintang, with countless military exploits. He could have returned to his hometown, but was deeply touched by the Russian October Revolution and the May Fourth Movement, and he resolutely devoted himself to the cause of proletarian revolution.
He traveled thousands of miles from Sichuan to Shanghai to find Chen Duxiu, General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee, and proposed to join the party. Chen Duxiu thought he was an old warlord, so he persuaded him to leave with excuses.
Chen Duxiu’s euphemistic refusal did not extinguish Zhu De’s enthusiasm for revolution. He turned to find out that there was a branch in France in Europe, and the person in charge was Zhou Enlai. He immediately sailed across the ocean and set off for Paris, France. Unexpectedly, the news is wrong, the European branch has been transferred to Marseille.
He left again from Paris to Marseille, but Zhou Enlai happened to go to Berlin. Zhu De’s determination to join the party became stronger and he drove from France to Berlin. Finally, he traveled a long distance and crossed the oceans to fulfill his dream of joining the party.
In 1927, the August 1st Nanchang Uprising started. On this day, Zhu De hosted a banquet in the prestigious Jiabin Building to”enter” the company commanders of the local garrison.
The host and the host enjoy the banquet , When the time passed to 9 o’clock in the evening, a person suddenly came up in a panic and whispered some whispers to the guests. Before leaving, he whispered to Zhu De:”There is a fear of riots tonight.” Zhu De was afraid of making people suspicious, so he didn’t stop the guests. After waiting for all the guests to disperse, he immediately rushed to the headquarters. Zhou Enlai made a decisive action and started two hours earlier.
At the beginning of September, the insurgents”divided troops into the Three Dams”, and Zhu De led his troops to only more than 4,000 troops. After completing the blocking task, the insurgents lost more than half. The situation facing the insurgents could not be worse:the enemy is attacking from all sides, the food will be exhausted, the ammunition will be exhausted, the wounded will not be treated well, and they will have to cross the miserable forest…
The soldiers in the uprising at the end of August wore shorts and shorts in Nanchang, which was like a stove, but until the end of October, they still had to wear shorts and shorts, and there was no good supply.
In the face of the harsh environment and the chasing enemy forces, more than two thousand soldiers were scattered. Only Chen Yi was the political cadre and the regiment-level cadres remained. Wang Erzhuo, the whole army walked to the Yuantianxinwei in Jiangxi Province with only more than 800 people left.
Zhu De does not force these soldiers to leave. He believes that the revolutionary cause must first be firm and secondly voluntary. But he still encouraged the remaining soldiers, citing the example of the Russian Revolution. He said:“They failed in the 1905 revolution in Russia, and they succeeded in 1917. The darkness is temporary, and we will have our 1917.”
It is Zhu De’s unyielding belief that plays the role of the mainstay. In the face of a harsh environment, the masses can be separated, but the leaders must remain unmoved. Zhu De’s resolute faith played an inspiring role at this time.
The remaining 800 soldiers followed Zhu De all the way to Jinggangshan, Jiangxi, where they met with the autumn harvest uprising troops led by Mao Zedong. Among these 800 people, the founders of the new Chinese army were born:in addition to Zhu De, the head of the ten marshals, Lin Biao, the principal of the Northeast battlefield, the third of the ten marshals, and Chen Yi, the sixth of the ten marshals. And Su Yu, the leader of the founding generals.
As the old saying goes, although Chu has three households, the death of Qin must be Chu. This is the real”single fire that can start a prairie fire”. At that time, no one could have imagined that 22 years later, they would personally participate in the feat of a million heroes crossing the river. Only an unyielding spirit supported them to go to Jinggang Mountain and devote themselves to the revolutionary cause of salvation.
For this reason, the day of the Nanchang Uprising was designated as the August 1st Army Day. It was Zhu De who”measured as big as the sea and as strong as steel”, turned the tide at the critical moment, and preserved the Red Army’s revolutionary fire intact. His name as the”father of the Red Army” is well-deserved.
Deng Xiaoping:Be gentle on the outside, and steel company inside
Deng Xiaoping’s leadership style is also bold and bold. Dare to take risks, and his foresight is quite similar to Mao Zedong. But Deng Xiaoping was bold, careful, sensitive, and thoughtful, and he was similar to Zhou Enlai. Mao Zedong appreciates that he is good at planning and making good judgments when he knows the dangers. This is not all based on loneliness and courage.
Mao Zedong once proposed that his standard for employing people is:Fear is a good idea”, which means that when encountering difficult and dangerous problems, only when you are in awe, can you think carefully and make accurate judgments that are in line with reality. Those who know the dangers are brave. This was one of the criteria for selecting talents proposed by Mao Zedong in that special era, and later became the criteria for selecting talents for our party.
The typical person Deng Xiaoping and Chen Yun.
Deng Xiaoping emphasized principle most throughout his life. When he was in Ruijin, Deng Xiaoping was dismissed because he firmly supported the correct line, supported the strategy of”encircling the city from the countryside” and opposed the”urban centralism”, and was removed from office until the Zunyi Conference internal party corrections were made. Reinstatement. This is the first”fall” in his life. Since then,”three ups and three downs” have achieved his legendary life.
During the War of Liberation, Mao Zedong had a unique vision and arranged for Deng Xiaoping and the”Military God” Liu Bocheng to lead the”Liu and Deng’s Army.” The two have very different personalities, but they are very complementary. They have been supporting each other for more than ten years, and they have achieved the famous”Liu and Deng Army”.
The army crossed the Yellow River like a dashed bamboo all the way, leaping thousands of miles into the Dabie Mountains, opening the prelude to the strategic offensive of the War of Liberation and liberating the Great Southwest Strategic Area.
Liberation The post-Southwestern region is a waste of time and has a complex ethnic composition. In less than three years, Deng Xiaoping, who was ruling the Southwest, mobilized the masses to successfully complete the land reform and other social reforms, and carefully eliminated the ethnic barriers left over from history.
After being in charge of the Southwest, the first thing he did was to build the Chengdu-Chongqing Railway, to realize the connection between the Southwest region and other areas, and to vigorously promote trade development of. After attending the founding ceremony, Deng Xiaoping returned to the southwest and peacefully liberated Tibet.
In 1952, Mao Zedong called Deng Xiaoping “talents are rare” and will He was transferred to the central government to take up heavy responsibilities.
In 1956, Mao Zedong elected Deng Xiaoping as the general secretary of the CPC Central Committee. At that time, he commented that he was”more talented and capable of doing things.” But generally speaking, this person is more considerate of the overall situation, is more kind, and handles problems more fairly.”
At the enlarged meeting of the Military Commission in 1973, in front of the commander of the 11th Military Region, it was announced that Deng Xiaoping would be the chief of staff of the People’s Liberation Army, and he praised Deng Xiaoping:How about you? Fear, there is rigidity in the softness, the needle is hidden in the cotton, the outside is gentler, and the inside is the steel company. These shortcomings, change it.
Mao Zedong evaluated Chen Yun and only wrote the word”neng” with his pen. However, looking at the stories before and after it is not difficult to find, although this evaluation is only one word, it is comparable to a daughter.
This is based on Zhuge Liang’s”Form of Forming a Teacher”, quoting Liu Bei’s evaluation of Meng Xiang Chong:”General Xiang Chong, Shujun in sex, Xiao Chang military, tried to use in the past, the first emperor called it Neng.”
Chen Yun is not a fierce general and has no literary skills. But the story of its”three cures of inflation” is still talked about today. Although Mao Zedong and Chen Yun had some disagreements on the level of financial strategy, he later talked about this feat and said:”Stopping prices and unifying finance and economics will not be less effective than the Battle of Huaihai.”
After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, everything was still in a state of abundance. The national economy was also hit hard, and the supply of materials exceeded demand. In addition, before the Kuomintang withdrew from the mainland, it had been issuing more than legal currency for many years. Hyperinflation continued for twelve years after the founding of the People’s Republic of China.
After Chen Yun has investigated and studied the actual economic situation , Successively fought the”Silver Dollar War” and”Rice Cotton War”, and proposed a set of”combined punches”:increasing material supply, reducing demand and reducing currency issuance, with immediate results. In 1950, prices had stabilized.
During the Resistance to US Aid Korea in 1951, military expenditures increased significantly. In order to maintain prices and ease financial pressure, Chen Yun found after investigation that grain and cotton yarn determined the prices at that time. But the grain harvest that year was not enough, only cotton yarn was insufficient. Through the state-owned company, Chen Yun purchased cotton yarn to ensure normal supply, and vigorously combated hoarding, and managed to maintain the balance of fiscal revenue and expenditure.
At the end of the 1970s, the implementation of the reform and opening-up policy enabled my country to gradually enter a market economy. Chen Yun also took advantage of the situation and made real-time adaptations, advocating the use of market mechanisms to stabilize prices and rectify reforms.
In 1956, Mao Zedong elected Chen Yun as the vice chairman of the CPC Central Committee, appraising Chen Yun for his fairness, ability and stability.”Don’t look at him being very peaceful, but he sees the problem sharply and can grasp the main points. He is also very brave, and he is also very brave to uphold the truth. The truth is still in the hands of one person.”
The word”neng” represents Chen Yunping’s ability to suppress prices, stabilize the economic situation, and develop the national economy. If Zhou Enlai is”the best candidate for the prime minister,” then Chen Yun is the best candidate for the finance chief.
Qu Qiubai:”A Wonderful Man”
Qu Qiubai was the head of the early CPC Central Committee and a pioneer of revolution By.
Lu Xun and Qu Qiubai admire each other. He once commented on Qu Qiubai’s article:He is so talented that he understands and understands clearly.
In 1935, Qu Qiubai was arrested. It was Song Xilian, commander of the 36th Division of the Kuomintang who arrested him. Song Xilian had read Qu Qiubai’s articles and admired his literary talents. He repeatedly suggested to Chiang Kai-shek that Qu Qiubai should be persuaded to surrender, and organized seven persuasion to surrender. Qu Qiubai refused at all, preferring to go to Tudao when he was only 36 years old at the time of sacrifice.
Before the famous literary work symposium held in Yan’an, Mao Zedong Talking to Xiao San about the construction of the party’s literary and artistic work, I sighed:If Comrade Qiubai was still alive, it would be fine. He understands literature and art and has a high level of cultural literacy. It would be better for him to take charge of literature and art.
In 1950, “Collected Works of Qu Qiubai” was published. Mao Zedong was pleased to write an inscription for the book. Qu Qiubai said that”many people did not understand him or opposed him, but his courage to work for the people was not frustrated. He insisted on a heroic stand during the difficult years of the revolution, preferring to walk towards the executioner’s butcher’s knife instead of yield”. “This The unyielding will and the thoughts he preserved in the words will live forever and will never die. Comrade Qu Qiubai is willing to use his brain to think about problems, he is thoughtful.” strong>
“The country is prosperous by people, and politics is governed by talents.” The older generations of revolutionaries have their own distinctive personalities. They are the”wonders” in Mao Zedong’s words. They also have their own achievements in their respective fields.
Looking back at the glorious years that our party has gone through over the past century, the wisdom and blood and sweat of countless revolutionary martyrs have been condensed in the storm. batch by batch The older generation of revolutionaries who succeeded in succession led the revolutionary masses, and finally worked together to disperse the dark clouds in the sky and make the rising sun in the east shine on this vicissitudes of life. We should cherish this hard-won happiness.
“Reading Notes of Mao Zedong” Sanlian Bookstore, September 2009 edition
Edited and published by the Central Literature Research Office:”Zhu De Biography”