Reported by Wenbao reporter Chen Jialan from Guangzhou
Recently, Apple announced the 2020 TOP200 supplier list on its official website. Compared with the list announced in 2019, the new The largest number of mainland Chinese manufacturers have been included in Apple’s supply chain (“fruit chain”), including Nanping Aluminum, Zhao Yi Chuangxin and other mainland manufacturers.
The reporter of”China Business Daily” noticed that according to the data of 2020, despite the factors of Sino-US trade friction, the number of Apple’s top 200 suppliers in mainland China has not decreased, but has increased. To a certain extent, this also shows that the status of mainland suppliers in the”fruit chain” is becoming more and more important. At the same time, Chinese suppliers are also further integrating the”fruit chain”. For example, in 2020, Lens Technology will acquire the main supply of Apple’s iPhone metal frame. Shangkecheng Technology’s two factories in Taizhou, Luxshare Precision acquired the Wistron factory in Kunshan, Jiangsu.
However, suppliers who go deep into the”fruit chain” are also prone to”large customersDependence”. For example, due to Apple’s reduction of capacity, the”fruit chain” leader Luxshare Precision The stock price was almost cut in two months. At the same time, we need to be wary that Chinese suppliers still provide more processing and manufacturing of some raw materials, or the supply of low-end components. In terms of high-end and sophisticated parts, such as chips and screens, Chinese suppliers have obvious shortcomings.
Between advance and retreat
The reporter further sorted out this”TOP200 list” and found that the new mainland China entering Apple’s supply chain included Nanping Aluminum, Zhao Easy Innovation, Jiangsu Jingyan, Derun Electronics, Changying Precision, Fuchi Hi-Tech, Suzhou Shengli Precision, Shenzhen Xinlun Technology, Tianma Microelectronics, Guangzhou Zhongshan Metal Technology, Suzhou Xinjieshun Hardware & Electrical Co., Ltd., and Hong Kong-based companies such as Anjieli Meiwei Electronics, Shanghai Industrial Holdings, etc. The list of the supply chain.
However, there are also many suppliers who have not been on the list. Mainland Chinese companies such as Jilin Liyuan Refining and Eaton Electronics have been removed. Artesyn Technologies, Cathay Pacific, and Chuangliang Technologies with Hong Kong background have also been removed. Was removed.
It’s worth noting that not including Apple’s top two hundred suppliers does not mean that Apple’s supply chain list has been completely removed. With the cooperation of the company, Eaton’s investor relations department recently told this reporter,”The company is concerned When it comes to the changes to the list of Apple’s suppliers, Apple’s statement for the 2018 list is”the top 200 suppliers’ expenses ‘, the expression for the 2020 list is’direct expenditure’. Eaton is not a direct supplier of Apple, but the product has entered the Apple supply chain. At present, the relationship between the company and Apple’s supply chain is normal.”
In Apple’s own words, these 200 suppliers account for 98%of Apple’s global spending on raw materials, manufacturing and assembly in 2020. But the other side of coin is that suppliers can easily develop dependence on Apple’s major customers.
Previously, Ou Feiguang’s removal from Apple’s supply chain caused market concerns about it, and its stock price plummeted one after another. However, this list shows that OFILM is still among Apple’s TOP200 suppliers, but since this year, OFILM has sold South China After the company is no longer a supplier of Apple.
Additional value short board
Among Apple’s top 200 suppliers, the number of Chinese manufacturers has gradually increased, which highlights the good development trend of domestic suppliers in the Apple supply chain.
For such changes, Major General Ding, an observer of Sankei and the founder of Nail Technology, believes that on the one hand, China’s industrial advantages and cost advantages are still very competitive; on the other hand, it is the first to control in China. Live up to the epidemic, while other economy in the world still has greater uncertainty, China’s supply chain The status of the company has been relatively improved.
It is worth noting that most of the newly-added Apple Chinese suppliers are concentrated in the fields of materials, precision components, and accessories. Only Tianma Microelectronics belongs to the panel company, GigaTech is a semiconductor company, and GigaTech is a semiconductor company. Contributing to the explosion of wireless headset business, we provide NOR Flash chips for Apple’s TWS (True Wireless Stereo). Previously, Apple’s suppliers in mainland China and Hong Kong, China were also mainly concentrated in precision components and material supply modules.
As of now, among Apple’s top 200 suppliers, there are more than 50 suppliers in Mainland China (including Hong Kong suppliers), setting a record high and surpassing The number of suppliers in Taiwan, China. However, mainland Chinese suppliers are still mainly concentrated in the non-core technology business of precision components and material supply modules, while the core parts business is still in the hands of the”US-Japan-Korea Industry Alliance”, such as chips and systems in the United States, and cameras in Japan. , South Korea’s screen battery.
According to the sales value statistics, the proportion of mainland Chinese enterprises is not high.”Nihon Keizai Shimbun” commented that suppliers from mainland China have complained about Apple’s The impact of production capacityWeight to further expand. On the other hand, in terms of the value of parts and components, the proportion of mainland Chinese enterprises is much smaller than the proportion of suppliers in the supply chain. According to estimates by industry insiders, for an iPhone 12 that costs more than US$370, parts and components from suppliers in China are only worth US$17, accounting for about 5%. Comparing South Korea and the United States, the value of about 25%of suppliers is far from each other. This shows that the main way for mainland Chinese suppliers to gain Apple’s favor is to provide low prices and choose low prices that other suppliers are unwilling to bear.Profit business. The parts and components of mainland Chinese suppliers are still at the middle and low end of the electronic consumer industry chain.
Major General Ding told reporters that there are still very few Chinese companies in the high-profit and high-value-added links. More is to provide processing and manufacturing of some raw materials, or the supply of low-end components. In the high-end, sophisticated core manufacturing parts, such as chips, the shortcomings of Chinese companies are still relatively obvious.
The position is difficult to shake
On the other hand, Apple has made preparations for risk prevention and control and industrial chain transfer. In recent years, Apple’s high-profile layout Southeast Asia, South Asian markets, and even transfer production capacity to India, Vietnam, etc. Countries with more demographic dividends.
As early as 2019, Apple planned to move 15%to 30%of hardware assembly output out of China. As the United States imposes a 25% tariff on China’s equipment including mobile phones, laptops and tablets , Prompting Apple to consider a more diversified supply chain system.
Starting from 2020, Apple suppliers Wistron and Hon Hai will increase their productivity in India. Pegatron has also been deployed in India. In March 2021, Hon Hai moved part of the production capacity of iPhone12 from China to India, allowing India The factory is responsible for the production of the latest models for the first time.
Thanks to China’s supply chain advantages, the reporter found that as of now, there are 156 Apple suppliers with manufacturing locations in mainland China, and the changes in the global factory layout of Apple’s 200 largest suppliers can be seen Out of this, Apple’s investment layout is undergoing changes.
The number of Apple suppliers with manufacturing locations in Vietnam has increased from 14 at the beginning of the trade friction in 2018 to 21 in 2020. Among the 21 companies, Luxshare Precision and GoerTek, the Chinese foundry company assembled for AirPods, two This company has been producing wireless headphones in Vietnam since the beginning of 2020. There are also Lansi Technology, Bern Optics, Lingyizhi Manufacturing, Yutong Packaging, Meiyingsen Group and other companies.
From the changes in the global factory layout of Apple’s top 200 suppliers, it can also be seen that there are 9 Apple suppliers with manufacturing locations in India, including Zhengwei Precision and Flextronics, Hon Hai Foxconn and other companies have invested in factories in India.
According to foreign media, Apple’s three major supply chain partners Foxconn, Pegatron, and Wistron have pledged to invest nearly US$900 million in India in the next five years to take advantage of local production incentives to increase iPhone sales. India’s production.
Shen Wanhongyuan believes that in recent years, it has been affected by political factors and price factors. Apple’s global supply chain structure has changed a lot, and its industrial chain layout has mainly made two-handed preparations:on the one hand, it vigorously supports Chinese mainland enterprises, and has changed the past industrial ecology of”Taiwan factories in China, supplemented by factories in mainland China”. This builds a huge consumer market industry chain that focuses on serving the Chinese mainland, and also through To reduce its risk of being suppressed in trade frictions; on the other hand, Apple is also accelerating the transfer of production capacity out of mainland China and to Vietnam and other places, with Hedging the risks faced by global market supply chains under Sino-US trade frictions.
It is worth noting that the recent slow recovery of the epidemic in India has not only disrupted the progress of Apple’s supply chain investment and establishment of factories in India, but also brought the test of production capacity in half. According to foreign media reports, due to the diagnosis of Hon Hai employees in the Indian plant, iPhone 12 production capacity has plummeted by more than 50%. In addition, affected by the rebound of the epidemic, Apple’s foundry in Vietnam has also ceased production one after another and has been affected.
This once again highlights the fact that although Apple has begun to shift its supply chain, it is inseparable from China’s supply chain. At present, the proportion of Chinese suppliers in Apple’s supply chain is still increasing.
The”Nihon Keizai Shimbun” stated that the US trade sanctions against China have not cut Apple’s close economic relationship with mainland China, and mainland Chinese suppliers have become the biggest beneficiaries of Apple’s supply chain diversification strategy.