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In mid-October 1950, the chess king Xie Xiaxun I wrote an inscription on a portrait of myself:”Mu Chuan, my son-in-law, sometimes travels to Beijing. 1950.10.18, Lishui.” So serious, the time, place, and content of the title are really rare in the hundreds of photos I have compiled and handled of chess kings, which indicates that there is an important but unsuitable secret. For many years, I have been tracking and sorting out the life of this Pingyang fellow. In order to eliminate doubts, after various verifications, I unearthed a section of chess king and Zhou Enlai The precious past of the prime minister is now made public.
Commonly expressing national difficulties against Yizhou
Xie Xiaxun was born in Tengjiao Town, Pingyang County, Zhejiang Province in 1888. He showed outstanding chess skills at an early age. Invincible hands all over the country. In 1916, he was forced to leave Pingyang to come to Shanghai for his livelihood. After several setbacks, he met a close friend and later relative, Huang Suchu, who was then the general manager of the”Newspaper”, and served as the editor of the newspaper’s chess column. Xie Xiaxun got to know many chess friends, collected ancient scores and the endgames of contemporary masters, and famous games. He compiled and compiled a more than 2 million words”Chess Book Encyclopedia”, which was intended to”learn from the past and the present, including the new and the old, so that researchers can get a complete picture.”Because of outstanding contributions and outstanding chess skills, he was awarded the title of”Chief Commander in Chess”.
Xie Xiaxun loves to play chess, and he does not forget to be patriotic. He regards chess as a game and cares about his family and country. He and his chess friends published”National Humiliation Memorial Chess Book”, which was hated by the Japanese. In 1932, the family of the chess king was besieged by the Japanese in Hongkou.Sichuan North Road span>At Dacheng Bookstore’s home, the youngest son Bingfu died in shock. He made two trips to Southeast Asia, and through the game, he narrowed the relationship between overseas Chinese and the motherland, raised more than 50 million yuan in cash and many gold and silver jewelry for the War of Resistance Against Japan, and mobilized 3,300 Chinese engineering technicians to return to China to participate in the War of Resistance. Xie Xiaxun had contacts with dignitaries and celebrities from both sides. Kong Xiangxi, Zhang Zhizhong, Li Zongren, Shao Lizi, Sun Ke, etc. all gave him calligraphy and praised him more. But for the chess king, the most memorable thing in his life is his decades-long friendship with Premier Zhou Enlai.
In the midsummer of 1939, the chess king was in Chongqing. After being introduced by Guo Chuntao, the chairman of the Chongqing Oriental Culture Association, he played two chess games with Premier Zhou. Xie Xiaxun was surprised to find that Premier Zhou had such a superb chess skill. The two of them met their opponents. After the game, they chatted about the situation for a long time, and they were very close to each other. They named the game published in the supplement of Chongqing’s”Ta Kung Pao” as”Commonly Expressing the National Dilemma”, implying that the KMT and the Communist Party can only defeat the Japanese invaders if they are united. This caused a strong response from the society. Xie Xiaxun was also praised by Zhou Enlai as the”patriotic chess king.” .
In the 1950s after the founding of the People’s Republic of China, at the Shanghai Hongkou Football Stadium, the chess king was once again received by Premier Zhou. In 1976, Premier Zhou Enlai passed away. Xie Xiaxun was in grief and could not sleep at night. In the following years, he mourned Premier Zhou with poems and essays. Poetry Yun:”With a sound of shaking Haitiandong, the world’s great man lost his publicity. The Shanghai stock market watched the ball with the same appreciation, Yuzhou played and looked up to the grace. Supplemented by the society for the future, efforts to reorganize the rivers and mountains. The benefit of the people is sudden and the world mourns. Sorrowful wind.” On the tenth anniversary of the prime minister’s death, the chess king had another poem:”Ten years since his death, tears filled the sky. I cared about me back then and I couldn’t apologize.” This memorial text comes from the heart, love. The meaning is long and touching, but the so-called”care about what” and”incapable of reporting” not only refer to two meetings, but also contain another deeper source.
Land reform imprisoned, life hanging by a thread
In the winter of 1948, the national liberation is just around the corner. Xie Xiaxun returned from Shanghai to his hometown, Pingyang, Zhejiang, where he had been away for more than ten years. At that time, the whole situation was unclear, the Communist Party had no contact, the Kuomintang could not be contacted, and past chess friends and democrats could not be contacted. Xie Xiaxun thought that despite many doubts, chess has nothing to do with the political situation, and he cannot live without chess. As a commoner, let’s go home and set the game. In the old house in Shuita Village, Ximen, Pingyang County, Xie Xiaxun set up a six-table chess board in the front room (in the middle hall) and invited Ximen’s relatives and neighbourhood chess players to come here to play chess. He also said that if he could win, he would invite dinner and give him chess.
Not long after the peaceful days, in the second half of 1949, Pingyang County carried out a large-scale land reform to counter hegemony. The land reform democratic movement of reducing rents and interest rates has gradually penetrated into class elements, fighting landlords and bullies, and suppressing counter-revolutionary movements. By the beginning of 1950, this movement affected the chess king and his family. The land reform team delineated the class composition of the chess king, and the three divisions were:farm hire, freelance, and landlord.
At the time, Cheng Zhuoran, a member of the organization committee of the town directly under the Pingyang County and the leader of the West City Work Team, said that the land reform team had two views on the chess king. Local cadres believe that:Xie Xiaxun has no problem, he has contributed a lot to the country, and he is a freelancer. If he is out for a long time, don’t move him; while cadres in the south believe that Xie Xiaxun is not enough to mobilize the masses. Only by arresting him can the results of the land reform be revealed. . Xie Xiaxun did own more than 40 acres of farmland at that time, of which 20 acres were Pingyang Tengjiao Hexi clan farm (the rent collected was handed over to Clan), some fields are rented out to collect rent and interest to feed more than a dozen people in the family. The king of chess and his eldest son Bingyi lived in Shanghai, Chongqing and other places for a long time. The land was managed and leased by his wife Guo Jinchai and his eldest daughter Xie Binghang. Therefore, after Xie Xiaxun was assigned as the landlord for the third time, his wife Guo Jinchai and the eldest daughter Xie Binghang were also assigned the landlord status and were supervised. Labor, criticism, and imprisonment become commonplace.
Li Liangzhu of the former county public security bureau is one of the five-member team of Pingyang Land Reform and Anti-Rebellion. He mentioned that the cadres of the land reform work team believed that Xie Xiaxun had been away for a long time and had contact with the KMT generals. Historical issues were complicated. The defeat of Xie Xiaxun showed the results of the land reform. In the middle of 1950, Li Liangzhu was sent by the county public security bureau to wait with Cheng Zhuoran to go to the chess king’s old house, seal the chess king’s house, and ransack his home. The copy of the copy of the family is chess, chess books, etc. There are also two trophies on the horizontal table of Xie’s Zhongtang. According to the memories of the chess king’s granddaughter Xie Zuotao, one of them was the”Silver Dragon Cup” that won the 1927 Five Nations Chess Tournament. Missing. Half of the seven old houses in the Ximen old house of Xie’s family were confiscated, and they were also allocated during the “land reform”.
After Xie Xiaxun was arrested, he was detained in the county government prison, and his wife Guo Jinchai was detained in the women’s prison. The third prison he was in contained more than 30 people in the inner prison. There were a number of Kuomintang members,”big landlords” and”big capitalists” escorted from Jinxiang Town and Qianku Town in Pingyang. Also imprisoned with him was Wu Bo, former Party Secretary of the Kuomintang in Pingyang County and county senator.
According to”Pingyang County Chronicles”:In 1944, Wu Bo was the vice chairman of the Kuomintang County Senate, and in 1946 he was elected as the chairman. He did a lot of useful work for the Southern Zhejiang guerrillas of the Communist Party:using the relationship to protect the secret transfer of the Communist leadership from the base area, trying to protect the safety of the local revolutionary masses; letting his son Wu Liangfu open a southern shop in Shuitou, buying supplies and food for the underground party, and transmitting information; In May 1949, Luo Jie, the county magistrate of Pingyang County of the Kuomintang sent him as a representative to the Communist Party’s Shanmen Station to negotiate the peaceful liberation of Pingyang. In early 1950, after Wu Bo participated in the first political consultation meeting of Wenzhou, he was taken back to Pingyang and locked up with Xie Xiaxun. Due to the wrong judgment at that time, a wrong case was formed, and Wu Bo was later wrongly judged and killed. The unfortunate experience of fellow inmate Wu Bo shows that Xie Xiaxun was in danger at the time.
Xie Xiaxun never forgets to play chess all his life. He is imprisoned and puts his life and death out of his life, and he wants to play chess with his cellmates. Zhan Ziyao, a prison friend who was locked up with the chess king, was in his 20s at the time. He lived in Xima Road, the county seat, and his family had 90 mu of land. He was detained as a landlord and later sentenced to be sent to Shaoxing labor reform. According to his memories, the chess king wore a gown and pedaled cloth shoes to get along well with people. He often sat on the floor in the prison, set up five chessboards, invited the cellmates to play chess, and said,”One person lets you a horse, let you take one step first.”. Most of the people in prison are people of some culture, and the result of the game is often that the chess king can defeat the enemy and win the game.
Rescued in time, Andu’s old age
Despite being calm in prison, Xie Xiaxun knew the situation was critical. One day, his fourth daughter, Bingrong, went to prison. He secretly told his daughter that he was locked in a dangerous situation and only Premier Zhou Enlai could save him. He told Bingrong to immediately inform his eldest brother Bingyi in Shanghai. Bingrong told the news to his third brother Rui Dan in Hangzhou and his eldest brother Bing Yi in Shanghai.
Xie Bingyi was the president of the Sino-Soviet Friendship Chess Club at the time. He knew the seriousness of the matter and immediately wrote to Zhou Enlai, Guo Chuntao, Guo Moruo, and Shen Junru in Beijing, asking them for help. Xie Bingyi met the latter three during the War of Resistance in Chongqing, had exchanges with them on chess skills, and helped his father organize chess information. The endgame of”Commonly Expressing the National Dilemma” published in Chongqing”Ta Kung Pao” has the words”Pingyang Xie Family Xie Xie Xie Xie System, Zi Bingyi’s Investigation and Correction”.
In the second half of 1950, the chief of the first section of the Pingyang County Public Security Bureau went to Wenzhou to attend a regional public security work conference. Before the meeting, the leaders of the Wenzhou District Public Security Bureau were very anxious and said:It’s really troublesome. Premier Zhou Enlai ordered three times to find Chess King Xie Xiaxun, this person was not found in the entire East China region! The Pingyang section chief replied, yes, there is this person in Pingyang, who plays chess. The leader immediately asked:”Where is the person?” The answer was”in jail.” He immediately said:”This can’t work, Premier Zhou VIP, immediately return to Pingyang to implement and release the people!” Then, the Wenzhou Prefectural Committee telegraphed the Pingyang County Party Committee, and the county Party Committee Secretary Dai Shangyi called Chengxi, the leader of the work team. Zhuoran said:“According to the East China Bureau, the Zhejiang Provincial Party Committee received a telegram from Premier Zhou Enlai and transferred from Wenzhou Prefectural Committee to Pingyang County Committee. Xie Xiaxun is invited to Beijing.” Cheng Zhuoran reported that Xie Xiaxun was in prison. Secretary Dai Shangyi was very annoyed and gave Cheng a meal. Criticize and give three instructions:1. The work team immediately released Xie Xiaxun and apologized repeatedly; 2. Returning personal belongings, including pocket watches and crutches (the crutches were given by Zhang Zhizhong), etc.; 3. To get a pass for Xie Xiaxun. Subsequently, the handling situation was notified to the East China Bureau and the Central Committee.
Xie Xiaxun was detained in jail for nearly forty days, and was taken to Ximen Taibao Temple to accompany him by the working group. He was also beaten. The landlords and”counter-revolutionaries” were also criticized on the spot. He was pulled out and shot. Mr. Wu Bo, who was in custody with him, was killed by mistake and has not been rehabilitated for various reasons. In the autumn of 1950, chess king Xie Xiaxun experienced a sinister move in his life. At that time, some people were mistakenly killed because they were classified as counter-revolutionaries, bullies, and landlords. Wu Bo was an example. Without the protection of Premier Zhou Enlai, he was ordered to rescue him three times in Beijing. The chess king whose life is hanging by a thread is very likely to suffer bad luck.
In October 1950, Xie Xiaxun left Pingyang and took a boat from Wenzhou Oujiang River across Qingtian to Lishui. The five daughters of Lishui County held Ying’s family for a week, and the fifth son-in-law Peng Muchuan was the business section chief of Lishui Local Products Company. The chess king took a photo in Lishui, inscribed the time and location by himself, commemorating the thrilling land reform disaster in his life in a subtle way, and silently missed Premier Zhou Enlai, his benefactor who saved him from prison. In the past years, these things that should not be made public because of the sensitivity of the current situation should now be made public.
In May 1955, Premier Zhou Enlai also telegraphed the mayor of Shanghai Chen Yi that he personally recommended chess king Xie Xiaxun as a librarian in the Shanghai Museum of Literature and History, so that Xie Xiaxun was protected by the party and the people’s government until he was a hundred years old. Leave the world peacefully.
In January 1988, the chess king memorial service was hosted by Wang Guozhong, curator of the Shanghai Museum of Literature and History, and Du Qian, chairman of the Shanghai branch of the All China Sports Federation, delivered a speech, saying Xie Xiaxun was”the pioneer of modern Chinese chess. He has devoted his life to the development of Chinese chess and made a significant contribution”,”I love chess, and love Chinese rivers and mountains even more.”
(The author is the former vice chairman of the Federation of Literary and Art Circles of Pingyang County, Zhejiang Province)