Cambodia is the southernmost country in the Indochina Peninsula, bordering three countries in the”Golden Triangle”. The west and northwest are adjacent to Thailand,the northeast and Laos border,The east and southeast are adjacent to Vietnam, The south faces the Gulf of Siam.
In 1863, Cambodia was reduced to a French colony. During World War II, the Japanese army briefly occupied Cambodia, after World War II, Cambodia declared independence from France in 1953. In recent years,Tourism, together with agriculture and animal husbandry, industry and infrastructure, and energy industry, have been called the Cambodian economic system The”Quadruple”.
After years of development, tourism has become a pillar industry of Cambodia’s national economy, accounting for more than 15%of GDP. The GDP contribution rate is more than 40%, and it is one of the countries with the highest percentage of GDP in the tourism industry in Asia.Main The customers come from neighboring regions, China and Japan and other Asian countries.
Behind the rapid economic development driven by tourism, there is a hidden crisis. Trading, drugs and gambling have seriously endangered the healthy development of Cambodia’s society, women and children’s rights are not protected, crime rates remain high, and social conflicts are prominent. This phenomenon has almost become a common problem in the Indochina Peninsula country,This series of problems has made Cambodia a paradise for whites’ pleasure-seeking and a nightmare for locals.
The paradise for the indulgences, the hell for women and children
Buying a spring tour group has been in recent years A special way of tourism emerged in the countries of the Indochina Peninsula. A group of people engaged in sex trading activities after arriving at the destination in the name of tourism, and the buy spring tour group has also become a kind of”transnational trade” in Cambodia,A bar street in the capital Phnom Penh Because of its low price and mature sex industry chain, no one knows it.
Although Cambodian law clearly stipulates that sex transactions are illegal, the operator You can always find yourself a legal shell, or bar, or hotel, or KTV, or massage shop. There is no demand, no profit inducement, and the girls will not follow suit.In Cambodia’s nightclubs, from White people in European and American countries and tourists from China have become the main force of consumption.
It is conservatively estimated that there are about 100,000 sex workers in Phnom Penh alone. Under the general standard, the price per night for local service personnel in Cambodia ranges from US$50, 100, and 150; the price for Vietnamese service providers is around US$150; Chinese service providers are the most expensive, around US$200. Of course,In the most expensive and highest-end bars, the price will be higher. The market has already marked the price for every girl invisibly.
In this huge group of practitioners, some people have chosen this profession voluntarily. Most of them are from rural areas, their families are poor, there are many brothers and sisters, and they have no opportunity to receive education. The yearning for a better life drove them to the feasting metropolis, but, want to make a living in the city, They can only be used as low-end labor.
Compared with babysitters, dishwashers, and street vendors, engaging in sex The service industry is obviously easier and the income is more substantial. In Sihanoukville, some factory female workers even work in the factory during the day and KTV at night. Most people’s highest expectation after entering the industry is to find a good rich businessman,become his second room or Three-bedroom wife.
But according to statistics, about 10%-33%of female sex Workers are trafficked into the sex industry, and human trafficking is extremely rampant. What’s more, Cambodia still has a foul-smelling pedophile service industry chain. Here, pedophiles extend their claws to poor Cambodian children.
A few years ago, the 12-year-old Cambodian girl Keo, who attracted widespread attention from Western media, was one of the typical victims. Surprisingly, she betrayed her. Not someone else, but his mother Rotana. Keo comes from an extremely poor family,There are three brothers and sisters in the family. His father drank and gambled and stayed behind. A large debt.
Her mother was encouraged and persuaded by the pimp neighbor and the old bustard, He promised to sell the virginity of his twelve-year-old daughter in exchange for a large sum of money. After picking up Keo by a strange vehicle, she was first sent to an illegally operated medical clinic for examination, To confirm that her hymen is intact and not infected with AIDS.
She was sent to the person”Yes This is where the nightmare begins with the man with the money. If you say,Illegal sex trade is an open secret in Cambodia, then the trade with women is even more hidden .
Because the Cambodian government, military, High-level police officers, or wealthy elites from other Asian countries,They pay between US$500 and US$5000. Wait for the expense to spend a good night with the virgin.
The main reason for the booming virgin trading is”cultural myth.” On the other hand, the potential financial temptation makes countless poor families choose to sell the virginity of their young children.”Buyers” will hire local women to deceive them,Because it is easier for them to become friends with teenage mothers.
In Cambodia, buying sex, human trafficking, and sex trafficking are regarded as getting rid of As an effective means of poverty, most people in Cambodia hold an ambiguous attitude towards this behavior. Since the law cannot be manifested, Cambodia has become a paradise where you can have sex with young girls,because even if caught Later, you can always evade punishment by bribing the police and judges.
The”prosperous” gambling industry
In the past ten years, Southeast Asian countries have gradually Improve the law and economic system in order to pursue the sound development of the domestic economy and society. Therefore, as a major factor affecting social stability, the gambling industry has naturally become the object of rectification. Many Southeast Asian countries, including Thailand, expelled a large number of online fraud groups and illegal online gambling organizations,These groups And the organization can only find another way out.
At this time, Cambodia, who is in a corner of the world, thinks that he has finally picked up When it came to the”first opportunity for latecomers” that fell from the sky, they began to go against their own way, opened the door, and attracted these eliminated industries with extremely loose licensing standards and extremely cheap operating costs.Cambodia’s”Oriental Las Vegas” dream kicked off.
As early as 1995, Cambodia passed the Anti-Gambling Law. The law prohibits citizens from participating in gambling, but recognizes the legal status of the gambling industry. The intention behind this is self-evident. The Cambodian government wants to obtain economic benefits from the gambling industry,But I am worried that the excessive participation in gambling by our citizens will bring hidden social dangers.
So from the moment the Cambodian gambling industry was born, the Cambodian government has set its sights on the wallets of foreign tourists. Currently, among Southeast Asian countries, Cambodia has the most casinos, followed by Myanmar, Laos and the Philippines.
In 2018, the Cambodian government approved 52 casino licenses, bringing the total number to 150, a 53%increase from the 98 casinos in 2017. The increase in demand for gambling activities,especially the record growth in the number of tourists from China, which is regarded as a casino Reasons for growth.
In 2018, more than 1.6 million Chinese tourists visited Cambodia, accounting for all foreign 26%of visitors. Nearly 90 of the 150 casinos in Cambodia are located in Sihanoukville,the Thai border Bay and Bayu near Vietnam each have more than 10 gambling venues.
Cambodia and neighboring countries have banned their citizens from gambling. In Southeast Asian countries, foreigners in casinos tend to occupy the majority.This is also the reason why Cambodia has set up casinos at the border. .
Gambling, as an entertainment activity or a means of government funding, has accompanied mankind through the entire civilized years. No matter what the society or government’s attitude towards it, it has never disappeared from human life.
The historical proof of human social practice, the pursuit of gambling and its consequences The stimulus and satisfaction of human beings is one of human nature and cannot be completely banned, but in order to eliminate the negative effects brought by the gambling industry,The government needs to strengthen legislation and strengthen system norms.
In Cambodia, when neighboring countries have adopted more complete systems to rectify gambling In order to get a share of the gambling industry, Cambodia,greets these being eliminated by neighboring countries with a low profile. The end industry.
Most countries around Cambodia and even the world have banned their own country Citizens take part in the gambling, Cambodia has become a destination for many tourists in Asia and the world seeking excitement and satisfaction. It is undeniable,For a period of time, the benefits of the gambling industry completely outweigh its negative effects.
It is worth mentioning that the rise of the gambling industry has attracted many foreign investment for Cambodia, promoted the development of related industries, and promoted consumption while solving The employment problem. In the past two years,In Sihanoukville, as the gambling industry is booming, it has brought a lot of Practitioners and gamblers.
In 2015, entrepreneurs from mainland China and Southeast Asia entered Westport, in just three to five years, the number of Chinese in Westport has increased dramatically from a few thousand to more than 300,000, The rapidly increasing population and their huge consumption potential have become the “outlet” for the rapid expansion of the real estate industry.
Chinese businessmen have always been the sharpest insights in the real estate industry. In the wind, the investment in real estate in Westport was quickly”hyped.” The gambling industry has led to the rise of Westport’s leisure and entertainment, real estate, hotels, tourism, catering and other industries.
“Walk by the river often, how can it be wet Shoes”,In an environment where gambling can be made everywhere, Cambodian people will inevitably get caught up in it, due to legislation Lax, weak law enforcement, and illegal gambling.
In recent years, online gambling and the large-scale operation of the black industry that it has spawned, Cambodia’s”Anti-Gambling Law” promulgated more than 20 years ago is no longer fully applicable. The scam industry that accompanies online gambling has also emerged,They are like a hot soldering iron, falling into Cambodia In a society where the rule of law is absent.
The resulting gangs, shootings, illegal money laundering, gang struggles and Vendettas and other incidents continue one after another,has become a hidden danger that endangers Cambodia’s social stability.
Finally in 2019, the Hun Sen government issued a gambling ban. After the ban on gambling takes effect, licensed physical casinos can still continue to exercise and”blood transfusion” for government finances.But other unlicensed casinos and online gambling will be banned, which will help improve the social stability factor.
Adjacent to the”Golden Triangle“, there is a flood of drugs
The pornography, gambling, and drugs have always been inseparable. In Cambodia, where the sex trade and gambling industry are in the ascendant, drugs are also rampant. What’s more, from the geographical point of view, Cambodia is close to the world’s largest drug-producing area”Golden Triangle”. The convenience of”first-served month”.
When it comes to Cambodia’s drug problem, it’s inseparable from the”Golden Triangle” This important factor. The”life experience” of the”Golden Triangle” has to be traced back to the 19th century. As we all know, it was the British who first brought opium to Asia, and then other Western countries followed suit. The East India Company was the first to bring opium to the Golden Triangle.This area is where the British exported opium to the Qing Empire. The main source of origin.
After the outbreak of the French-Vietnam War, in order to fully occupy Vietnam, France will Asking for help turned to the aboriginal people living in the mountains. At that time, the surrounding countries of the Golden Triangle did not formally determine their borders.The aborigines lived in the deep mountains and old forests for a long time. The way of life is backward, they only have the concept of ethnic group but not the concept of country.
The French method is to let the aboriginal people grow poppies, but when the poppies mature, the market becomes a problem. Because drug trafficking in the UK has been reduced on a large scale.
At this time the aborigines had to find the French to buy them, and the French agreed The additional condition for the purchase of opium poppies is that the indigenous people must militarily help France attack the Vietnamese guerrillas, and the indigenous people are so fierce and brutal, the two sides quickly reached a deal. Thus, as an accessory to the French-Vietnamese War,The Golden Triangle, the world’s largest source of drugs, has taken shape.
After the 20th century,U.S. activities in this region have further promoted the”Golden Triangle” as the world’s largest source of drugs.
During the U.S.-Vietnam War, the United States’”united front” strategy in South Vietnam It was exactly the same as the French strategy back then. They wooed and united the leaders of the local mountain communities and reached an opium purchase agreement with them in exchange for the mountain communities’ support for South Vietnam and against North Vietnam. At this time,the first generation of poison king Luo Xinghan in the Golden Triangle rises, and the successors include Kunsha and Peng Jiasheng and others.
Although Cambodia does not belong to the”Golden Triangle” country, as a transit country of the Golden Triangle drug flow to the international market, it is deeply affected by drugs. Many new types of drugs appearing in Cambodia, such as methamphetamine and ecstasy, are from the Golden Triangle. Most of the time, Cambodia is just a transit point for these drugs.They transit through Cambodia and flow into other Asian countries and regions.
Many provinces in Cambodia have also seen dens of new drugs , They have a series of drug manufacturing processes such as processing, production and packaging. Due to poor border control and being surrounded on three sides by the”Golden Triangle” countries, Cambodia will sooner or later be”dominated” by drugs. As long as the source of the Golden Triangle is not eliminated, Cambodia’s drug problem cannot be completely resolved.
According to investigations, there are currently more than 1,500 entertainment venues in Phnom Penh. Among them, drug-related entertainment venues accounted for 86%, and a total of more than 1,000 have previously signed agreements with the police not to use drugs. Nevertheless, drug crimes and drug circulation are still active.
Gambling and sex trade have long been commonplace in Cambodia, and these industries are often hardest hit by drug trafficking. Drugs are everywhere, and the convenient way to buy them has made many people fall into the drug network.and More drug addicts have embarked on the road of trafficking and smoking, forming a vicious circle.
Throughout the drug cases cracked by the Cambodian police, minors, Young people are the group most involved in drug cases. Drug-rich places are not only full of violence, but also terrible diseases.There are more than 70,000 AIDS groups in Cambodia.
It is estimated that the current HIV infection rate among injecting drug users in Cambodia is 14%-31%. Due to poverty, teenagers who are frantically”tempered” in the gray zone generally have a low level of education.faces temptation Sometimes they lack the ability to discern, and they may join the sex service industry or take drugs and sell drugs.
It should have become a group that the country hopes, but now it has become a group that affects public order One of the unstable factors. On the other hand, the proliferation of guns has contributed to the criminal harm of drugs in Cambodian society.
Drug trade is often done by transnational criminal groups. China is also one of the victims of drugs in the Golden Triangle. The current solution to the drug problem in the Golden Triangle requires international cooperation. The film”Operation Mekong” is adapted from the true plot of the 2011 Golden Triangle attack on Chinese crew members.
In 2011, two Chinese merchant ships were attacked in the waters of the Golden Triangle of the Mekong River. All 13 Chinese crew members were killed. The Thai military police claimed that 900,000 crystals of methamphetamine had been found from the ship. The news was sent back to China, and the whole country was shocked.
In order to find out the truth, Gao Gang, the captain of the Yunnan Anti-drug Headquarters, accepted the special The mission, led a brave and militant combat team into Thailand, met with Fang Xinwu, an intelligence agent lurking in Thailand, and the two teamed up to investigate the case in the Golden Triangle, and found that there are many suspicious points behind the case. The real murderer is setting off the innocent China. After being a crew member, not only did he get away with it, even more intended to use drugs to create a bigger conspiracy.
The two decided to capture the big drug lord Nuoka alive at all costs to fight drug crimes and seek justice for innocent people. The drug problem in Indochina is not a national problem, but a regional or even global issue.Extensive international cooperation is the only way to gradually eliminate the drug problem in the Golden Triangle.
For many years, China has been acting as a responsible power in practice. Role,Every year, we cooperate with Southeast Asian countries to seize thousands of drugs that are about to fall into the population.
The intersection of history and reality
In Cambodia, for a specific individual, no matter what Is it the chaotic sex market, the”booming” gambling industry, or the rampant drug trade. For them, it is only a means of pursuing a better life. Numerous girls have left their homes and rushed to nightclubs. Mothers betrayed the virginity of their young daughters or peddled on the streets. Small vendors of methamphetamine tablets,they
Pursue a better life, and some just ask to fill the stomach.
In the face of poverty, people are always instinctive His yearning is also due to human nature.”We know honor and disgrace when we have enough warehouses, and know etiquette when we have enough food and clothing.” These people who live at the bottom who engage in illegal transactions,It is not human nature that drives them to touch the bottom line of the law, but poverty.
And for a country like Cambodia, which is not badly talented, Why do people live in dire straits, so that they engage in these improper livelihoods regardless of their safety? Perhaps the concept of”national capability” can explain the reason behind it to a certain extent.
Although different scholars often use different scales to measure national capabilities, generally speaking, three indicators are the most recognized.
One is the power of the army and the police, which is the country’s violent monopoly power;
The second is the fiscal and taxation situation, that is, how much social resources the government can concentrate in its own hands ;
The third is the country’s information capabilities, that is, how much the country has mastered Information on population, land, and resources in its territory.
Only with the information ability, can conscription and taxation be possible, Therefore, the national information capability has been paid more and more attention by scholars in recent years. No matter from any angle, Cambodia can be regarded as a country with low national capacity.
Although the level of economic development is low, Cambodia’s economy is still growing in recent years ,However, the degree of social stability and prosperity is not directly proportional to the trend of economic development. The root cause behind it is It is because the country’s governance capacity is low, and the country’s finances cannot be transformed into effective social governance.
On the one hand, due to unreasonable financial distribution, the police force is limited; on the other hand, due to corruption, Government officials, the army and the police are often bribery, so it is difficult to mobilize the police force to maintain social stability.
In Southeast Asian countries, the degree of corruption of the Cambodian government is “unmatched”. The International Organization for Transparency International released the ranking of the Global Corruption Perception Index in January.Cambodia has been named the most corrupt country in Southeast Asia for four consecutive years, and is only superior to North Korea and Pakistan in the Asia-Pacific region.
What’s more, due to the low level of the rule of law, Cambodia’s so-called The”ruling class” also participates in the black industry. In order to gain personal gain, they ignore or even trample on the law, Undermine the authority of the government.
History is like a magic mirror, from which we can always see what we are today appearance. Today, Cambodia is not happening overnight. In the more than two decades after the 1970s, it was a golden period of rapid economic development in East Asia and Southeast Asia. Countries are”gearing hands”. Strive to find a suitable role in the division of labor in the global industrial chain.
At this time, in Cambodia, the Lon Nol coup overthrew the stable rule of Prince Sinuhak, and then fell into a civil war. It was basically stopped until the 1990s, which made Cambodia miss the”one-way train” leading to prosperity,Be squeezed out of the allocation of global economic development.
Cambodia has always Accept assistance from various countries. The poor and weak economic situation is the direct cause of Cambodia’s bold opening of the fast-returning and low-cost gambling industry ,It is also the fundamental reason for its inability to effectively govern society.
“No country is an island”, eliminate poverty and drugs, protect women and children Rights and interests are the direction that people all over the world are constantly striving for. The plight of some developing countries is a common plight of people all over the world. Only with the concerted efforts of the international community, Cambodia’s domestic problem of”pornography, gambling, and drugs” can be solved more effectively.