The Khitan people were originally an ancient nomadic people in northern China, mainly active in the Liaohe River A nomadic area with abundant water and grass.
At the end of the Tang Dynasty, the Khitan people living outside Guan suddenly became stronger. They absorbed a large number of Han people who fled outside the pass due to the war, learned advanced Han culture, and began to transform from a backward tribal state into a feudal empire”Liao”.
916 AD, Yelü Abaoji (Liao Taizu), one of the eight Khitan tribes’ leader, established the Liao Dynasty/Liao Kingdom in Linhuang,The name of the country was originally designated as”Khitan”, and later changed to Liao.
When the Liao Kingdom was at its strongest, it once ruled Northeast China and the Mongolian Plateau. Since the 11th century, the Liao Dynasty, the Northern Song Dynasty, and the Xixia Dynasty showed a three-legged situation.
Among the three countries, Liao has the strongest military strength. The policy of respecting Confucianism and Buddhism was implemented; the Northern Song Dynasty had the strongest economic strength and the largest population, but its military strength was average; Xixia had the weakest national strength and fragile economy. At its peak, it had only a population of more than 3 million, but its military strength was also very strong.
For the meaning of the Khitan people’s national name as”Liao”, it was once described as :
“Liao Dynasty takes the iron as the number, whichever Strong! Although the iron and iron are strong, they will eventually deteriorate, but the big gold will remain the same.”
Because the Northern Song Dynasty lost the Yanyun Sixteen Prefectures and the Great Wall, Therefore, it can only rule the area inside the pass, and the vast land outside the pass is under the rule of the Khitan people for more than two hundred years. In this period, the prestige and territory of the Khitan people reached the peak of history.
Today, in Russian The word”China” comes from the translation of”Китай (Khitan)”, and some Arab countries also call northern China by”Khitan”.
“Liao History•Taizu Benji” said:I have repaired cultural relics, and they are no different from China.
However, the powerful Liao Dynasty went to extinction around the 12th century and was replaced by the emerging Jurchen tribe (Jin Dynasty/Jin Kingdom).
AD In 1115, the leader of the Wanyan tribe of the Jurchen tribe”Wanyan Aguda” The Golden State was established in Heilongjiang Province, and then it took nearly ten years to eliminate the Liao State.
The”ruling core” of the Liao State, all of the Wujing area It fell into the hands of the Jurchens of Jin Guo, respectively ShangjingLinhuang Mansion, Xijing Datong Mansion, Nanjing Xijin Mansion, Tokyo Liaoyang Prefecture, Zhongjing Dading Prefecture.
The leader of Khitan, The last emperor of Liao, Tianzuo Emperor Yelu Yanxi died of faintness and incompetence, and finally became the golden girl Captives of real people.
After the demise of the Liao Kingdom in 1125, the name of the Khitan nation also fell apart, disappeared in the long river of history, and gradually forgotten by people.
“The History of Yuan Dynasty”:”Liao is used to explode, and Jin is destroyed by Confucianism.”
Until modern times, archaeologists’ The new discovery confirmed that the descendants of the Khitan had always been in the big family of the Chinese nation. According to the records in”History” and modern DNA comparison techniques, it can be roughly determined that the Khitans were in Liao. There are three points of whereabouts after the extinction.
First, integrate into the Jurchen tribe, and then gradually Sinicize
Khitan and Jurchen are originally two different Nationality, but after the Jurchen’s Jin Kingdom wiped out the Liao Kingdom, it also annexed the homeland of the Liao Kingdom. The vast majority of Khitan people chose to submit to Jurchen and became the subjects of the Kingdom of Jin. After many Khitan nobles surrendered to the Kingdom of Jin, they all served as high-ranking officials in the Kingdom of Jin.
In the war of the Kingdom of Fight with khitan and Xi warriors. This part of the Khitansfollowed the Jurchens to conquer the Central Plains and live together with the Hans. After more than a hundred years It evolved and gradually merged into the Han nationality, so the name”Khitan” was no longer retained.
Second, follow Yelü DashiWest Expedition, and then gradually Islamization
Records in”Liao History”:Yelu, a Khitan noble Dashi refused to return to the Jin Dynasty, and led more than a hundred Khitan cavalry troops to flee west. People along the way continued to gather in the Old Ministry of the Liao State, and finally received more than tens of thousands of people and hundreds of thousands of livestock.
Based on these soldiers and horses, Yelu Dashi has continuously expanded its strength and established West Liao dynasty.
This part of the Khitans followed the Yelv Dashi to exped The folklore was brought to the far northwest.
In the 13th century, the Mongol Empire rose, and the Western Liao Dynasty had a long-term relationship with Afghanistan. The Gur Dynasty broke out in war, its strength was greatly reduced, and was eventually destroyed by the Mongol Empire. The remaining Khitans fled to Central Asia one after another, and most of them became Muslims (Islamics).
Third, migration to Yunnan or the outlying areas in the northeast have become other ethnic groups
In addition to following the Jurchens into the Central Plains, there are some In the northeast where the Khitan people stayed, they were sent to the remote border by the Jin Kingdom and later the Mongol Empire.
These people merged with other ethnic groups and became later generations of”Daur ethnic group“. After DNA comparison and referring to the remains of the Khitan people in the ancient tombs of the Liao Dynasty, experts found that the Daur people are closest to the Khitan people in history.
Dur Habitat and customs are also very similar to the Khitan in history. According to statistics, Daur compatriots are mainly distributed in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Heilongjiang Province, Liaoning Province and other places in the Daur Autonomous Region. Because of their strong physique and well-developed sports genes, they are good at hockey.
In addition, our country’s Yunnan Province also found Khitan descendants. The Puman people in Yunnan are the descendants of Khitan in history, and about 150,000 people live in Yunnan. In the 1990s, my country’s Union Hospital, the Academy of Social Sciences, the Yunnan Civil Affairs Commission, and the Inner Mongolia Civil Affairs Commission conducted investigations on this issue. They compared the Puman’s DNA with the Khitan’s DNA and found that the two were highly consistent. They are the descendants of the famous Khitan nation in history.
However, the Khitan was originally a minority in the Northeast, why Will you come to Yunnan thousands of miles away?
Experts speculate that when the Mongols emerged in history, Kublai Khan once led a part of the Khitan army to attack Dali Kingdom (the Yunnan regime in ancient times), so the descendants of these Khitan people stayed in Yunnan to be responsible for defense and farming. Their descendants are today’s Puman people.
In 1253, the Mongol Empire sent troops to attack Dali, Later, the Yuan Dynasty set it as Yunnan Province, and the Khitan descendants stayed in Yunnan to live.
Reference materials:”Liao History”,”Golden History”,”Cambridge Chinese History”,”Folk Customs and Customs of the Daur Nationality”,”Variation of Yunnan Minority Nationalities”