In order to obtain the coveted territory of Tsarist Russia with its”expansion first”, in 1911, when the Revolution of 1911 broke out in my country, it directed the ugly drama of”independence” of Outer Mongolia. However, what is surprising is that although Tsarist Russia created the fact that Outer Mongolia was separated from China, it did not support its nominal independence, and it also rejected the request for the merger of Inner and Outer Mongolia at that time.

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1917, map of the Republic of China

Looking at the entire behavior of Tsarist Russia, people can’t help but be puzzled! Let us roughly estimate that Mongolia’s territory is 1.5665 million square kilometers, 312 times more than the 5,000 square kilometers lost by the defeated Japan at that time. Various mineral resources and biological resources are extremely rich. Wouldn’t it be better if Tsarist Russia promoted the independence of Outer Mongolia and included it in its own territory?

The origin of Outer Mongolia

We understand the operation of Tsarist Russia Before, let’s take a look at this”Outer Mongolia” that has been included in our country since ancient times. The term”Mongolia” originally originated from a tribe in the northeastern part of Mongolia that was once called”Mengwu Shiwei”. Later, it gradually evolved from the name of the tribe to the place name where the Mongols live and multiply.

It is undeniable that since ancient times, Outer Mongolia has been our country’s territory, and many ethnic and Han people in northern my country have carried out production and living activities in this place. After the rise of the Mongols, this place has become the main area of ​​Mongolian national activities in our country.

In fact, in the earliest days, Mongolia did not have internal and external terms. The term”outer Mongolia” first appeared in 1631 and was The Qing government is used to refer to those that have an alliance with it and live in The Mongolian tribes in the Mongolian area, the”outside” means”outside the border”. The Qing government approved the compilation of Zhasak to resettle the Mongolian ministries that have formed alliances with them.

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Mainland (yellow), Manchuria and Inner Mongolia (red), Outer Mongolia and Xinjiang Tibet (green), vassal Kingdom (orange)

With the consolidation of the Manchu Qing regime, the implementation of the league banner system in Mongolia has become more and more , Outer points. Among them, each Zhasak Banner in Monan Mongolia is under the management of Nezhasak Banner and is called”Inner Fan Mongolia”, while Mobei Mongolia and Moxi Mongolia All Zhasak banners belong to Wai Zhasak Banner, which is called”Outer Fan Mongolia”. As a result,”Inner Mongolia” and”Outer Mongolia” began to gradually evolve into official administrative nouns and geographical domain terms.

Tsarist Russia’s coveting of Outer Mongolia

Looking at the entire historical process, Tsarist Russia has never stopped its wanton aggression to Mongolia.

Although Tsarist Russia started as a country in Europe and was not adjacent to China at all, but with the continuous expansion from the 16th century, Tsarist Russia quickly developed into a Countries across the two continents of Europe and Asia. When Tsarist Russia’s eastward expansion power extended to Siberia, the target of aggression was turned to Mongolia.

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As early as 1688 Tsarist Russia He tried his best to win Zhungar’s ministry into Russian nationality, and actively instigated Zhungar’s raid on Tushetuhan’s ministry, marched into Outer Mongolia, and forced Outer Mongolia to surrender to it. Although the Qing government tried its best to persuade Geldan to retreat, it did not change Galdan’s attitude. On the contrary, it was more in Mobei.Mobei Galloping raging.

At this time, the representatives of Qing and Russia held a meeting in Nibuchu, and after negotiation, they signed the”The Treaty of Nerchinsk. The treaty demarcates the eastern section of the border between China and Russia. According to the relevant provisions of the Treaty of Nerchinsk, Tsarist Russia captured the Qing government’s Baikal A large area of ​​land in the east area.

Although the boundary has been delineated for both parties, The greedy Czarist Russia did not stop there, but continued to support the crimes of Guldannan. In 1697, Emperor Kangxi personally led troops to conquer Geldan and annihilated them all. In order to prevent Tsarist Russia from further aggression against Mongolia, the Qing government repeatedly noted the Russian side to discuss the delimitation of the Sino-Russian border.

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For more cannibalization In my country’s Mongolia region, Tsarist Russia tried its best to postpone the delimitation of the border. Until 1727, China and Russia successively signed the”Blensky Boundary Agreement and the” span class=”candidate-entity-word” data-gid=”2547702″ qid=”6585482165520176398″>Kaktu Treaty“, although it officially delineated the middle boundary between China and Russia and confirmed Outer Mongolia It belongs to China, but Tsarist Russia has also obtained numerous benefits through these two treaties. .

Then in February 1901, Tsarist Minister of Foreign Affairs Ramdorf gave it to The Qing dynasty envoy to Russia Yang Ru’s draft”Treaty of Handover of the Three Eastern Provinces” set forth the requirement to monopolize the mines, railways and other interests of the Outer Mongolia region. After being defeated in the Russo-Japanese War in 1905, Tsarist Russia stepped up its invasion of Mongolia.

The fuse of Outer Mongolia’s independence

Although the Qing Dynasty has always It was in a state of retreat, but in the early days, when China was still in a state of wealth and strength, it was still able to effectively resist the invasion of Tsarist Russia, making its edge somewhat restrained. But after the Opium War, China’s national gates were forced to open, making Tsarist Russia aware of the weakness of the Qing Dynasty government Deception, and thus began to carry out even more unscrupulous embezzlement and plunder.

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But Outer Mongolia is our country The gate of northern Xinjiang is the northern natural barrier to ensure the safety of the hinterland. Once lost, Tsarist Russia can use it as a strategic base, posing a threat to my country’s Northeast, North China, and Northwest China Therefore, in the face of Tsarist Russia’s invasion of Mongolia, the Qing government had to change the old system and implement the”New Deal” to strengthen the rule of Mongolia to consolidate Frontiers.

For example, in 1909, Sanduo was appointed as Cullen’s Minister of Affairs, and he began to actively organize and implement the”New Deal”. The contents are roughly as follows:

  • Set up the Armament Department to prepare the new army. In order to subsidize the training costs, the gold mine’s tax revenue of nearly 200,000 taels of silver was confiscated.
  • Set up a health bureau to treat various diseases, and set up a food and drug bureau and smoking cessation agency as its branches.
  • Establish schools to cultivate talents. He also selected 6 from a large number of students and sent them to the school of the Russian consulate to learn Russian.
  • Open up the Mongolian land and invite people to reclaim wasteland. In order to raise the huge amount of compensation after the war, the Qing government had to abolish the previous ban on Mongolia and open up the land resources of Mongolia to collect taxes.

In addition to the above four points, in just two years, San Duo was in Kulun has successively opened more than 20 institutions including the Constitutional Reserve, the Negotiation Bureau, the Commercial Investigation Bureau, and the Industrial Investigation Bureau, and a large number of new officials have been added.

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The implementation of the”New Deal” also has The development of various aspects of culture has played a very positive role, and more importantly, it has hindered the frantic aggression and expansion of Tsarist Russia in Outer Mongolia. However, overall, the implementation of the”New Deal” has done more harm than good.

First of all, the implementation of the”New Deal” increased the burden on the local poor people. In addition, it greatly harmed the interests of the upper princes, nobles and lamas of Outer Mongolia. , Further strengthened the centrifugal tendency of some Outer Mongolians. The emergence of all kinds of behaviors created conditions for Tsarist Russia to plan the”independence” of Outer Mongolia.

“Outer Mongolia”‘s first independence

Outer Mongolia The first real opportunity for independence was the outbreak of the Xinhai Revolution in China.

In the early days of the Revolution of 1911, provinces in the interior declared their independence one after another. It goes without saying that this kind of independence is actually a departure from the rule of the Qing Dynasty, rather than self-reliance in the world. The impact of the Xinhai Revolution on the frontier politics with the stigma of”Expelling the Tartars and restoring China is even more obvious. , Its essence is to exclude Northeast, Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang and Tibet, the 18 provinces in the interior of China restored the Han territory.

In general, if the independence of the interior is to separate from the Qing government, the “independence” of the frontier means separation from China. Thus, under the active instigation of Tsarist Russia, Outer Mongolia began the road of”independence”. In exchange for assistance and protection, Outer Mongolia also privately signed the”Russia-Mongolia Agreement” and the”Special Articles of Commerce” with Tsarist Russia, granting Tsarist Russia various privileges such as mining, railways, and economic commerce.

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Outer Mongolian princes and Tsarist Russian officers

These behaviors were unbearable to the Chinese government at the time. Yuan Shikai The government decided to use force to force the Outer Mongolian authorities to give up”independence” when the appeasement policy failed”. At that time, the Kulun government imprisoned King Murgan of Tumeng, who had always opposed”independence”, and provided an excuse for the Yuan Shikai government to send troops to Outer Mongolia.

But this move was strongly opposed by Tsarist Russia and threatened that if the Yuan Shikai government sent troops to Outer Mongolia, Russia would also intervene by force. Immediately, Tsarist Russia sent three companies to occupy the city of Kobdow. Under the pressure of the Tsarist Russian government, the Yuan Shikai government could only adjust its policy and temporarily shelve its plan to send troops to Outer Mongolia.

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However, although Tsarist Russia stepped It is pressing the Chinese government, but it cannot do whatever it wants to support the independence of Outer Mongolia. This brings us back to the question we raised at the beginning of the article, why didn’t Tsarist Russia directly promote the independence of Outer Mongolia?

The reason is that if Tsarist Russia publicly supports the independence of Outer Mongolia, it is tantamount to announcing to the world that Tsarist Russia has promoted and supported China’s secession. The agreement to dismember China. In addition, other imperialist countries will not be willing to monopolize Outer Mongolia by Tsarist Russia, which threatens Tsarist Russia’s own interests.

Therefore, no matter what the situation is, for Russia, the independence of Outer Mongolia cannot develop into the”property for us” that Tsarist Russia hopes. To this end, Russia has adopted a low-key policy of”seeking truth from the name”. He positioned himself as the mediator of the Mongolian issue and the guarantor of autonomy, demanding that the Chinese side is not in Mongolia The troops stationed in Mongolia will not emigrate to Mongolia, and will not set up administrative institutions in Mongolia. Accordingly, the Mongolians recognize China’s suzerainty.

In this way, although China retains the “suzerainty” of Outer Mongolia in name, Tsarist Russia actually controls Outer Mongolia. As a result, after many negotiations, China, Russia, and Mongolia signed the”China-Russia Agreement” on June 7, 1915 in Kyakhta. The first”independence” of Outer Mongolia ended in”autonomy”.

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“Sino-Russian Agreement” signed

Leaving”autonomy” to”independence”

If you think”autonomy” is the end, then you are seriously underestimating Tsarist ambitions.

The situation in Outer Mongolia changed after the October Revolution broke out in Tsarist Russia. As the power of Tsarist Russia in Outer Mongolia was greatly weakened, the “autonomy” of Outer Mongolia also lost its backing. With the support of Japan, the Russian White Party entrenched Dawuli, Chita in an attempt to invade and occupy Outer Mongolia, Establishment includes Inner and Outer Mongolia, Hulunbeier, Tangnuwulianghai including the”Greater Mongolia”.

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Russian white bandit Semenov (first from left)

The Soviet Russian Red Army also tried to suppress the white bandits and consolidate its position. However, due to its weak outer Mongolian power, the Beijing government was invited to send troops to station, so the Beiyang government also took the opportunity Send Xu Shuzheng to lead troops into Kulun in an attempt to regain the sovereignty of Outer Mongolia. In this case, Outer Mongolia became the arena for the continuation of the Soviet Union’s civil strife.

Outer Mongolia, living in the cracks, in order to seek protection from China, on November 17, 1919, he wrote to the President of the Republic of ChinaXu Shichang, petitioned to abolish all Russia-Mongolia treaties and return the whole territory of Mongolia to China. On the 22nd, Xu Shichang promulgated the Presidential Decree to abolish the autonomy of Outer Mongolia and abolish the 1915 Sino-Russian-Mongolia Agreement.

However, the good times will not last long. At that time, the Beiyang government was busy fighting warlords, and the”independent” forces of Outer Mongolia took advantage of the momentum to rise. After the Russian White Party captured Kulun with the support of Japan and regained the Khan throne with Zhebzundan Ba ​​Kutuktu, Outer Mongolia once again declared its”independence” and established the”Greater Mongol Empire.”

In 1924, the Mongolian Living Buddha passed away, Soviet Union Formally reorganized the”Independent State of Mongolia” into the People’s Republic of Mongolia. Although our country still does not recognize it according to the old rules, the National Government at this time was just at the time of the Northern Expedition, and it had no time to take care of Outer Mongolia. Then, with the occurrence of the”Dongdong Road Incident,” Sino-Soviet relations were also completely severed.

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until”September 1 After the Eighth Incident, in response to the common enemy-Japan, China and the Soviet Union resumed diplomatic relations in December 1932. Since the Kuomintang government needed assistance from the Soviet Union, it basically adopted a silent and tolerant attitude on the issue of Outer Mongolia. As a result, the Soviet Union’s control of Outer Mongolia became a foregone conclusion as the issue of Outer Mongolia dragged on.

Completely disappeared from Chinese territory

February 1945, about Yalta that ended World War II The meeting was held and the issue of Outer Mongolia was again on the negotiating table. However, the issue of Outer Mongolia at this time is no longer an issue of China and the Soviet Union, but has become a bargaining chip for the United States, Britain and other countries to end the war with the Soviet Union as soon as possible and negotiate and allocate the post-war situation.

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On the one hand, the United States wants the Soviet Union It can declare war on Japan as soon as possible to reduce the pressure on the US military. On the other hand, the Soviet Union hopes to use diplomatic means to legalize the independence of Outer Mongolia to ensure its own interests in the Far East. As a result, the two parties did not hesitate to sell China’s sovereign interests and put heavy pressure on the Chiang Jieshi government.

Although the Nationalist Government hopes to keep Outer Mongolia, it is more worried about offending the two major powers and losing the support of the Soviet Union and the United States. Therefore, the negotiations were deadlocked from the beginning. Afterwards, Stalin used his own influence on the KMT and the CCP as a bargaining chip, warning the KMT government to reach an agreement with it as soon as possible. The Chiang Kai-shek government had to give in and signed the”Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship Alliance.”

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Sino-Soviet Friendship Alliance Treaty Signing Site

After the consent of China and the Soviet Union, the Outer Mongolian government held a referendum on the independence of Outer Mongolia in Kulun on October 20, 1945. The voting result was 97.8%in favor of independence, so the Chinese government represented by Chiang Kai-shek had to announce the recognition of the independence of Outer Mongolia on January 5, 1946. Outer Mongolia’s third independence made it forever separated from China’s territory.

With the loss of Outer Mongolia, Tangnuwulianghai, which is no longer adjacent to the Chinese territory, also lost the favorable conditions to regain it. The recognition of the independence of Mongolia is undoubtedly a major event in the history of the Republic of China that angered and embarrassed the people of the country. But the main reason was that China was too poor to compete with the great powers at that time, that is, the so-called”weak country without diplomacy.”


地Original history, no reprinting