●Mao Zedong’s resignation and resignation
When the Chinese People’s Liberation Army first granted the ranks of military ranks, our army used to refer to the practices of the Soviet Union and other countries and set up” The rank of Generalissimo. On February 8, 1955, the Sixth Meeting of the Standing Committee of the First National People’s Congress discussed and passed the “Regulations on the Service of Officers of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army”, which stipulated that the ranks of officers were 4 and 14 ranks, of which the first rank was the marshal and the next There are two levels:General Marshal of the People’s Republic of China and Marshal of the People’s Republic of China. So far, the rank of”General Marshal of the People’s Republic of China” has been determined in the form of legislation.
Mao Zedong is the main founder and leader of the Communist Party of China, the Chinese People’s Liberation Army and the People’s Republic of China. According to the “Regulations”, there is only one person who meets the standards of the General Marshal of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army, and that is Mao Zedong. .
On January 14th and 15th, 1955, the Central Military Commission held a symposium specifically to study the issue of granting ranks of marshals, generals, and generals. After discussion at the meeting, a consensus was reached. Mao Zedong deserved to be awarded the rank of Generalissimo.
When Mao Zedong learned about it, he immediately refused. To this end, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress held a special meeting to discuss the matter, and the highest legislative body resolved the matter. At the meeting, members of the Standing Committee, including many democrats, spoke in succession, believing that Mao Zedong played a great role in leading the national armed forces in the revolutionary war and should be awarded the rank of general. Chairman Liu Shaoqi, who presided over the meeting, knew Mao Zedong’s unwillingness to confer titles, and said that he personally”cannot draw conclusions.” Liu Shaoqi reluctantly said:”Don’t you often see Chairman Mao? After you meet, go to persuade him face to face and get his consent. This meeting will not make a decision.” Afterwards, many comrades persuaded Mao Zedong to accept the rank of general and told him. The situation in which Stalin was awarded the rank of Generalissimo in the Soviet Union, but Mao Zedong refused:”We don’t have to copy what the Soviet Union has.” In the end, everyone failed to convince him.
On one occasion, Peng Dehuai and Luo Ronghuan went to Zhongnanhai to report to Mao Zedong and others on the progress of the evaluation work. After listening to the report, Mao Zedong said:”You guys are doing great work, and it is also a very difficult job. I don’t want to be a general. It’s uncomfortable for me to put on the uniform of the general. It’s inconvenient to talk and perform activities in the middle! In my opinion, those who work in the local area don’t judge military rank as good.” He asked Liu Shaoqi, “You were in the army, and you are also a marshal.” Liu Shaoqi said immediately.”Don’t comment.” He asked Zhou Enlai and Deng Xiaoping again:”Your marshal rank, do you still want to comment!” Both of them waved their hands and said,”Don’t comment, don’t comment.” Mao Zedong turned around and asked about the long history Comrades such as Deng Zihui and Zhang Dingcheng, who took the leadership of the army and later went to work in the local area, also said that they do not want to comment.
In the end, only 10 people including Zhu De and Peng Dehuai were awarded the rank of Marshal of the People’s Republic of China. Because Mao Zedong resolutely refused to grant the rank of Generalissimo, the”Generalissimo of the People’s Republic of China” became an empty title in the history of New China.
●Zhou Enlai, Liu Shaoqi, and Deng Xiaoping voluntarily renounce the rank of marshal ●
The Regulations on the Service of Officers of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army stipulate that the establishment and leadership of the People’s Armed Forces or High-ranking generals who led the battle corps and made outstanding achievements were awarded the rank of Marshal of the People’s Republic of China. Therefore, in the initial plan, in addition to Zhu De and other final 10 marshals, Zhou Enlai, Liu Shaoqi, and Deng Xiaoping were also candidates for marshals.
But in the process of finalizing the list of marshals, some changes have taken place.
On January 16, 1955, Peng Dehuai and Luo Ronghuan jointly gave Mao Zedong a report on the”Constitution of the Military Commission to discuss the specific list of marshals, generals, and generals”, which clearly proposed the candidates for the rank of marshal. On August 17, 1955, at the 44th meeting of the Central Military Commission, Song Renqiong also asked:”Whether Teng Daiyuan, Li Xiannian, Tan Zhenlin and other comrades Chen Yi, Deng Xiaoping, Zhou Enlai, and Liu Shaoqi will be awarded titles this year?” Thereafter, on September 14, 1955 On the morning of the day, the Military Commission held an ad hoc meeting to discuss the rank of marshal, Nie Rongzhen mentioned:”The chairman said that he and the responsible comrades of the Central Committee will not be granted titles for the time being, and will be discussed in the second and third batches (Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping will not grant them temporarily).” On September 20, the General Cadre Department issued the”List of Marshals and Generals”, among which 10 marshals were Zhu De, Peng Dehuai, Liu Bocheng, He Long, Chen Yi, Luo Ronghuan, Xu Xiangqian, Nie Rongzhen, and Ye Jianying. According to the decision of the central government, cadres of troops who have gone to work in local areas do not participate in the award of active duty in principle. At that time, Zhou Enlai was the Premier of the State Council, Liu Shaoqi was the Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, and Deng Xiaoping was the Secretary-General of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the Vice Premier of the State Council. They all cited not holding positions in the military. Persist in giving up the title.
In this regard, on September 23, 1955, when the 18th plenary meeting of the State Council discussed and approved the first batch of lists of meritorious personnel of the People’s Liberation Army, Chen Yun, who presided over the meeting, explained:“Some Comrades used to serve in the People’s Liberation Army for a long time, but now they have changed jobs and no military ranks are awarded. The number of comrades awarded to marshals is set to 10, and not all of them can be awarded. Comrade Deng Xiaoping, for example, contributed to army building and commanding operations in the revolutionary war. Yes, he is the vice chairman of the National Defense Commission. The Central Committee considers that he can be awarded, but his main job now is the Secretary-General of the Central Committee. It is not good to appoint a marshal. He himself thinks that it is better not to award it.”
1955 At 4 o’clock in the afternoon on September 27, 2005, Peng Dehuai, He Long, Chen Yi, Luo Ronghuan, Nie Rongzhen, Xu Xiangqian and others waited in the lounge for the awarding ceremony to begin. Premier Zhou Enlai wore a gray tunic and walked into the mining team to express his sincere congratulations to these old comrades in arms. He Long said sincerely:”Our Premier Zhou should also be awarded the title!” Zhou Enlai smiled and waved his hand humbly and said:”I am a government worker and serve the marshals. Let me be your logistics.” /p>
On July 21, 1977, Deng Xiaoping said at the Third Plenary Session of the Tenth Central Committee of the Communist Party of China:”When you come to work, you can have two attitudes, one is to be an official and the other is to do some work. I think, who Ask you to be a Communist. Since you become an official, you cannot be an official, you cannot have selfish thoughts, and you cannot have other choices. You should honestly perform the responsibilities of a party member and obey the party’s arrangements.”
●Li Xiannian, Tan Zhenlin and other meritorious generals were not awarded military ranks because they went to work in local areas. ●
A large number of senior generals such as Li Xiannian and Tan Zhenlin, from the period of the Agrarian Revolutionary War to At the beginning of the founding of New China, they all held important leadership positions in the army and made major contributions to the development and growth of our army. However, after the founding of the country, they obeyed the needs of national construction and development and left the army to work in the party and state leading organs.
On January 16, 1955, Peng Dehuai and Nie Rongzhen jointly reported to Mao Zedong on the discussion of military ranks on the 14th and 15th Military Commission Forum. In the preliminary list of generals, it was mentioned:”Li Xiannian, Tan Zhenlin, Teng Daiyuan, Wang Weizhou, Shao Shiping, Feng Baiju, Zhou Baozhong, and Wang Shitai are all those who have historical ties to the army or have ties to a certain area. The chairman should consider whether to grant the rank of active service or reserve service.”
On February 4th, Luo Ronghuan, Minister of the General Cadre Department, signed and reported to Mao Zedong and the Central Military Commission the”Request for the Appraisal and Award of Military Ranks of Local Responsible Cadres”, suggesting that”have historical ties with the military and with a certain area The military ranks of “associated representatives” can be handled in three ways:one is “the rank must be assessed and then granted”; the second is “only the rank is assessed but not granted”; the third is “the rank of reserve is granted”. The specific opinions of the General Cadre Department are:Wang Weizhou, Feng Baiju, and Zhou Baozhong are”required to be assessed for military ranks”; Teng Daiyuan, Li Xiannian, Bo Yibo, Deng Zihui, Zhang Naicheng, and Wang Shitai are”granted”. The reserve military ranks include Cheng Zihua, Cai Shufan, Tan Qilong, He Changgong, Zhang Jichun, and Ji Pengfei. In addition, for local cadres who concurrently hold military posts, those who concurrently hold posts at or above the district political commissar (prefectural committee secretary) shall be evaluated and not granted their military ranks.
Finally, inspired by the personal charm of Mao Zedong and other party and state leaders, everyone resolutely obeyed the central regulations and calmly gave up the ranks. Although they have not been included in the roster of generals, their names will always be engraved on historical monuments.
(From”National Defense Reference” 2015, Issue 18)