If you look at the vast Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, you will find a series of place names with local ethnic characteristics:Alxa League, Zhenglan Banner, Chenbalhu Banner, Dongwuzhumuqin Banner, etc. Among them, Meng is a prefecture-level unit, Qi is a county-level unit, and Qi Meng is unique to the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
There are 3 leagues in Inner Mongolia:Alxa, Xilin Gol, and Xing’an; 49 flags, and 3 autonomous flags of Oroqen, Ewenki, and Moridawa.
Why does Inner Mongolia have such unique administrative units as banners and leagues?
Let’s start with Genghis Khan unified grassland.
Boer Zhijin·Temujin (1162- 1227), namely Genghis Khan
Grassland during the Mongolian and Yuan Dynasties
During the Song and Jin Dynasties, there were various tribes on the grassland:Qiyan Tribe, Tata The Ministry of Children, the Ministry of Cree, the Ministry of Naiman and so on. These tribes acted independently and attacked each other. It wasn’t until 1206 that Genghis Khan unified the grasslands and ended this situation. Genghis Khan dismantled the original tribes and divided the tribes into one hundred households and thousands of households based on the principle of one-tenth. They were assigned to family members and heroes.
In the Yuan Dynasty, the grassland hometown became the Lingbei Province, Lingbei Province and the mainland The administrative systems of other provinces are different. Lingbei Province does not set up Lufu Prefectures and counties, but is composed of the princes and nobles’ fiefs”Emark”. Under Emark, there are ten households, one hundred households, and one thousand households. In essence, it is not much different from the period of Genghis Khan.
In this system, the leader is hereditary, and there is a very strict subordinate relationship between the superior and the superior. Mongolian riders are organized and united, so they are organized and disciplined, and their combat effectiveness is also reflected.
The administrative division of Yuan Dynasty in 1294, the uppermost Lingbei and other places Xingzhongshu Province is abbreviated as Lingbei Xing Province.
The Chaos of the Northern Yuan Dynasty
After the fall of the Yuan Dynasty, the Mongolians were forced to move back to Saibei. Yuan Khan Court declined, internal disputes continued, some people controlled many”Emak”, called”Etok”. These nobles are not convinced by anyone, and fight each other. However, the”Forest People” who originally depended on the Great Khan had risen to a showdown with the Mongolian headquarters, and the grasslands fell into chaos.
About the time of Hongzhi Zhengde of the Ming Dynasty, a figure appeared in the Golden Family, named Peerzhijin-Batumengke, which was stated in the Ming History He is the little prince. The little prince fought off the Wala people and united the Mongolian tribes again. He was known as the ancestor of the”Da Yuan Zhongxing”, or Dayan Khan. Dayan Khan abolished the post of Taishi long occupied by the Oalas, and established the position of”Jinong” (transliteration of the king of Jin in Chinese), which was held by Da Khan’s son or brother, which strengthened the authority of Khan Ting. At the same time, the Mongolian ministries were reorganized.
Dayan Khan divided the main parts of the Mongolian ministries into 60,000 households on the left and right wings, and the”Etok” under the ten thousand prime ministers. 30,000 households on the left:Chahar, Uliangha, and Khalkha; 30,000 households on the right:Ordos, Tumote, and Yongshebu.
The Chahar Wan households are directly under the jurisdiction of Dahan, and the Ordos Wan households are under the direct jurisdiction of Jinong. The leaders of other ministries are also held by the sons of Dayan Khan. The division of these 60,000 households has far-reaching impact. Until now, Mongolia still claimed to be Khalkha Mongolia. This Khalkha was one of the 10,000 left-wing households divided by Dayan Khan.
Berzhijin·Batumengke (1473 AD -1517), the Mongolian ethnic group
However, after Dayan Khan’s death, all Mongolian ministries fell into a separatist melee. The reason was that Dayan Khan’s centralization measures were not thorough enough. The ministries are just like the kingdom of princes enshrined by the emperor Zhou. The leader is hereditary, and the Khan only takes care of one. The strength is about the same as that of the princes.”Funeng, the emperor, banned it.”
Secondly, Dayan Khan did not unify the Oala tribe in his system, and some of the smaller tribes of Mongolia were not included in his pocket, such as The Qing Dynasty unified the country and established the Horqin Tribe, which made great achievements.
Therefore, there must be a stronger political power, a broader scope of control, and a more restrictive system to ensure The stability of the Mongolian plateau.
Picture of Emperor Taizu Jianyuan in”Records of Manchuria” , The mighty guards around Nurhachi
Qing Dynasty:The establishment and implementation of the Qi League system
The Qing dynasty Nurhachi established a set of Eight Banners system. Hundreds of people are regarded as one cattle, five cattle are recorded as one Jiala, and five are recorded as one solid mountain. Gushan is the meaning of a flag. There are eight flags:yellow, white, blue, red, yellow, blue, red, and white. Ding Zhuang under his banner was the people in peacetime and soldiers in wartime, and he was firmly controlled by the Manchu nobles.
During the development and growth of the Qing forces, many Mongolian tribes were either conquered by the Qing or voluntarily defected to the Qing. In the beginning, the Qing government incorporated them into the Eight Banners of Manchuria. Later, more and more Mongols returned to the Qing court. The original Eight Banners could not fit, especially in 1634, when Huang Taiji defeated the Great Khan of ChaharLin Danhan, he has gained countless young men. Therefore, a special Mongolian Eight Banner was created. This is the beginning of the implementation of the”banner” within the Mongolian nation.
The Eight Banners of the Qing Army
Mongolia The Eight Banners is a military-political integrated organization subordinate to the Manchu Eight Banners system, which is still different from the later”banners” of local administrative regions. In May 1636, Huang Taiji joined the forty-nine princes of the 16 tribes of Mongolia in the Shengjing League and divided Mongolia into 49 banners. The original prince was Zhasak (the banner leader), and what was done here was the real” Administrative flag”. These”administrative flags” were transformed from the original Edok imitation of the Eight Banners system, and several banners were regularly organized for unions, so they were called the”qi league system.” In 1640, Huang Taiji announced the abolition of the original”ten thousand households” and”Edok” and other units, all of which were managed by flags, and the flag league system was fully implemented in the Qing-controlled Monan area.
With the expansion of Qing Dynasty forces in Mongolia, the Qi League system has been continuously promoted. In the thirtieth year of Kangxi (1691), Mobei Mongolia attached to the Qing Dynasty, and Outer Mongolia began to implement the banner alliance system. In the second year of Emperor Yongzheng (1724), Oerut Mongolia in Qinghai and other places began to implement the banner alliance system. After Qianlong’s attack on Zhungeer, the Mongolian areas under the jurisdiction of the Qing had basically implemented the Qimeng system.
Emperor Qianlong (reigned 1736-1795)
Organization of Qimeng
The Qing Dynasty divided Mongolian tribes into three general management categories:The Eight Banners of Mongolia, Outer Fan Mongolia, and Inner Mongolia. The Eight Banners Mongolian system is the same as Manchuria, stationed throughout the country, forming its own system. Most of the Mongolians on the grasslands belong to the latter two. Among them, the Outer Fan Mongolia is the majority.
- The flag league of Outer Fan Mongolia.
The so-called Waifan in Mongolia is governed by tribal leaders. The Mongolian lords hereditary as the flag commander called the Zhasak Prince. The territory in the banner is his fief, and the people in the banner are his citizens. Zasak’s office is called Heshuo Yamen, with 2 associates, 1 supervisor, and 1 Merlin (the general soldier), collectively known as the five ministers of the palm and seal. There is Su Mu at the first level. The chief officer of Su Mu is called Su Mu Zhangjing, and the next level Su Mu is called Kundu.
The adjacent flags will meet every three years, and the flag leader designated by the central government will be the leader and deputy leader. The leader of the league and the central commissioner convened the league together, assigned the central tasks to each banner, conveyed the instructions of the court, counted the population economic data of each banner, summarized the judicial cases, and reported to the central government. During the Qing Dynasty, the League itself did not have an administrative organization, and it was not a first-level administrative unit. It was just a committee that supervised and coordinated with the banners of the League.
Chahar Du Tongyamen
- The flag of Inner Mongolia.
Inner Mongolia is managed by officials directly appointed by the central government. The general manager, deputy generals, and ministers of Sanzhi were appointed as banner leaders. Under its banner, there are officials such as the leader and the general. The Inner Mongolian flag is almost non-aligned, and it is directly under the jurisdiction of generals and generals. It can be said that the Outer Fan Mongolia is fully autonomous, and the Inner Mongolia is under the direct control of the central government.
Many of the Inner Mongolians came from the original Outer Fan Mongolia, which was suppressed and”returned” because of the rebellion. The largest Inner Mongolian tribe is the Chahar tribe. In the fourteenth year of Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty, Prince Burni of Chahar felt that he was the orthodox descendant of Genghis Khan, how could he be subjugated? So taking advantage of the San Francisco rebellion, troops were raised against the Qing Dynasty. In less than two months, he was suppressed by the Qing court. Kangxi set the Chahar Ministry into eight subordinate flags, using the name of the red, yellow, white, and blue flags that are inlaid with them, known as the Chahar Eight Banners.
Qing dynasty Alxa Huoshuote Banner Zhasake Seal
The enlightenment behind the flag alliance
The Qimeng system is a basic political system implemented by the Qing Dynasty in Mongolia. It can be seen from this that the Qing Dynasty’s strategy for Mongolia is to draw in, add precautions and restrictions, and apply both grace and power.
Look at the side of Eun first, the high-ranking officials and Hulu draw the upper class. The Qing court gave Prince Zasak extremely high treatment. They were given superior titles, ranging from the town guru to the prince, and they were married into relatives. Other officials in the Mongolian Banner League are also highly ranked. The size of the flag is equivalent to that of counties in the interior. However, the Qi Associate is a first-grade official, and the Associate and Meilin have second and third grades, which are nowhere higher than the seventh-grade Zhi-Same official in the mainland.
Let’s talk about the prestige side. The Qing government set up two sets of civil and military teams at the central and local levels to control and restrain Mongolia.
Mongolian princess and princess in the late Qing Dynasty
In the central government, there isLiFan Yuan, which specializes in Mongolian affairs. Mongolian princes’ tribute and rewards are all managed by the Lifan Yuan. Important matters in the banner must be reported to the Lifan Yuan for approval. The pastoral land, people, cattle, horses, and farms in the banner must be reported to Lifanyuan. The Lifan Yuan is also responsible for formulating laws and regulations, such as the Regulations of the Lifan Yuan, and the Mongolian Law to restrict Mongolian princes.
Send high-ranking officers to set up heavy troops in localities. On the vast land of Mengjiang, Hulunbuir Deputy Dutong, Rehe Dutong, Uliasutai General, Kulun Office Minister, Suiyuan City General, and Kobdo Counselor’s ministers holding heavy forces were set up. Supervise the Mongolian tribes, and if they have rebelled against wrongdoing, they will immediately be slain.
Under the combined application of Enwei, the banner alliance system firmly bound the Mongolian tribes. A strict boundary is drawn between the flag and the flag. Herdsmen of different flags cannot graze across the border. The border between Qidi and Handi is clear, and Mongolian and Han people cannot travel freely. This can prevent the Mongolian ministries and the Mongolian and Han nationalities from uniting and expanding, posing a threat to the court.
Qing Dynasty map
The Qimeng system was implemented almost throughout the entire Qing Dynasty. It wasn’t until the end of the Qing Dynasty that the powers invaded and the Qing Dynasty declined, and it gradually collapsed. The banner alliance system has its positive side:It guarantees the peace and stability of the grassland frontiers, which greatly reduces the conflicts and chaos between the Mongolian ministries. But after all, it was a feudal product of the Qing court maintaining its rule, and it had limitations of the times.
Due to the long-term implementation of the Qimeng system, Qihemeng has also become a customary regional title. After the establishment of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in 1947, the old Qimeng system was completely eliminated by history. However, according to custom, Qi and Meng were left as the names of some administrative divisions.
Source:History D School National Humanities History
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