Source:”Xiang tide ‘Authors:Wuyi Guo
In October 1934, due to Bogu, Li De and others’ promotion of “Left” Adventurism and rejection of Mao Zedong’s correct leadership caused the military and civilians of the Central Revolutionary Base to fail the fifth anti-“encirclement and suppression” struggle, and the Central Red Army was forced to make a major strategic shift.
At this time, Wang Jiaxiang was still recuperating because of being injured by an enemy plane. When the Red Army team was about to start, he was informed that he was looking forward to it day and night. The Military Commission sent him several stretchers and medical personnel who took care of him, and also sent horses, ready to take him on the march with horses and stretchers alternately. Later, I learned that when Bogu and his colleagues were studying the arrangements for the transfer of personnel, they wanted to leave Wang Jiaxiang as a seriously wounded person in the homes of the common people to recuperate, and leave Mao Zedong behind as a poor person. Many comrades fought for them, saying that Mao Zedong was the chairman of the Chinese Soviet Republic and he must not stay. Mao Zedong and others learned that Wang Jiaxiang would also be kept, and immediately argued for him, saying that Wang Jiaxiang was the vice chairman of the Military Commission and the director of the General Political Department. He had a heavy responsibility and must act with the army and insisted that he act together. Bogu agreed to move with the army together. Knowing this situation, Wang Jiaxiang was not only fortunate that he was finally able to participate in the Long March, but also deeply grateful for Mao Zedong and others for caring and helping him at this critical moment. On October 11, the Chinese Revolutionary Military Commission issued an order to organize Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Zhu De, Zhang Wentian, and Wang Jiaxiang into a central team under one column for the Long March.
Wang Jiaxiang moved to Mao Zedong and said:”We can’t leave the party organization and the army.”
Mao Zedong replied firmly:”Yes! The revolution also needs our loyalty. The members of the Communist Party of China have come to strive for victory!”
On this day, it was dark and the Red Army stopped in a mountain village. The password was passed down:rest on the spot, stand by and move on.
A wood-grass house without a door was empty, and it was dark. The guards spread some hay in it and let Wang Jiaxiang and a few other comrades go in and lie down to rest.
After a while, a few people walked towards the thatched house, headed by Mao Zedong, and the person behind him carried an empty stretcher. A little soldier with the appearance of a guard ran to the door of the Chai Cao Hu and asked:”Comrade, is there still room in there?”
Mao Zedong hurriedly stepped forward and grabbed him , Said softly:”Don’t shout, it will affect people’s rest, let’s stay outside!” When Wang Jiaxiang heard the voice, he hurriedly raised his head and asked outside:”Is it Comrade Mao Zedong? Please come in.”
Mao Zedong said happily:”Oh, it’s Comrade Jiaxiang!”
Wang Jiaxiang said:”Please come in and rest, there is still a place, it’s too cold outside!”
“Okay, thank you! Just be with you in this’Guangsha’ room and be an outdoor’bad guy’!” Mao Zedong said humorously as he stepped in the door, Wang Jiaxiang had already made room for him.
Mao Zedong sat down next to Wang Jiaxiang and asked with concern:”How is your body? Is the wound inflamed?”
Wang Jiaxiang also asked him:”What about you? Yours? How is the disease? Take care!” Mao Zedong had just been cured of falciparum malaria, and his physique was still very weak.
Mao Zedong said:”It’s okay, but you have to be more careful about your injuries!” He took out two cigarettes from his pocket and handed one to Wang Jiaxiang.
Wang Jiaxiang raised his hand to block it, and said:”Thank you, you can’t smoke now. We are in the chai hut, and we will become suspects if we catch fire!”
It was just a few days ago. In the past, in order to provoke the relationship between our army and the masses along the way, the enemy sent people to pretend to be our army personnel and set fire to civilian houses. Later, we caught several arsonists and executed them in public trial.
Mao Zedong hurriedly said:”Yes, yes,’the melon fields don’t pay for shoes, the plums don’t make the crowns’. You can’t smoke in this thatched house. You and I can only overcome it!”
He held the cigarette, leaning forward to sniff the smoke. After a while, Mao Zedong seemed to say to Wang Jiaxiang casually:”Cigarette addiction is better, and sickness can survive, but the heart disease of defeat is difficult to treat!” Wang Jiaxiang heard that he was igniting his long-cherished event. , Simply sat up and asked:”Comrade Zedong, just to ask you, what do you think of the current situation?”
Mao Zedong paused for a while, but then asked him:”What about you? How are you? What do you think?”
“Me?” Wang Jiaxiang said slowly:”In one word, let Li De It’s incredible if they continue to command like this!”
Mao Zedong immediately said:”So in your opinion, how do you get rid of the predicament you are facing?”
Wang Jiaxiang said:”I I’m thinking about it. I’m not going to lose this way, so I have to ask you.”
Mao Zedong leaned close to him and smiled:”Then I’ll talk about my opinion first, and then listen. Listen to your opinions.” While talking about the current direction of our army’s action and the transfer of routes, talking about the defeat of the fifth anti-“encirclement and suppression” and the previous victory of anti-“encirclement and suppression”, it pointed out two kinds of military thinking and command. The divergence of policies and the fundamental reason for the failure of the fifth anti-“encirclement and suppression” campaign.
The two were talking with great interest, but there was a bugle sounded outside. Wang Jiaxiang hurriedly got up and went out with Mao Zedong. Mao Zedong slapped the grass clippings on his body, and said to Wang Jiaxiang:”You and I will talk as you go!”
So the two talked all the way, and the road was wide. When the road is narrow, talk on the left and the other on the right. When the road is narrow, they will talk one after the other. When walking on the road, they will lie down and talk on two stretchers side by side. They marched and talked, took a break to talk, and lived together when they were camping. One listened attentively and the other talked openly. The listeners humbly asked for advice, and the speakers asked for advice.
At this time, although Mao Zedong was the chairman of the Provisional Central Government of the Chinese Soviet Republic, he had only one empty name. Although he was still a member of the Politburo, he was not allowed to deal with major military affairs. He had no say in the central government. The correct claim cannot be implemented.
Before entering Tongdao County on the western border of Hunan, Mao Zedong and Wang Jiaxiang talked more deeply about how to get rid of the current predicament.
Mao Zedong said to Wang Jiaxiang:”Chiang Jieshi has set up a big pocket, tempting us to drill, but Our commander just doesn’t see the danger, or he sees it, but can’t change it. He has to get in. You say he is stupid?”
Mao Zedong stopped and said:” The road is heading towards the sky, and we will go to one side. The enemy sets up pockets in western Hunan, and we will find another way.” He raised his hand and pointed to the mountain road to the west, and whispered to Wang Jiaxiang:”We learned from the intelligence we have obtained that the enemy is not strong in Guizhou. There are many, and there is no fortification and fortification system. We can take advantage of the emptiness and change our route. Instead of going to Xiangxi, we will turn to Guizhou, so that Chiang Kai-shek will have nothing to do.”
Wang Jiaxiang nodded and said:”This I also know the intelligence. Really, Bogu would never lead troops. Although Li De has rich military knowledge, he ignored the current situation and commanded blindly since entering the Soviet area!”
Mao Zedong thought deeply. Said:”This is the problem. Where did Li De’s military knowledge come from? It was originally from the West, and it came from ordinary wars and even imperialist wars. Our war is in China. It was in the revolutionary base area, and it was an anti-encirclement and suppression war carried out when the enemy was strong and we were weak. The environment was different, the conditions were different, and the nature of the war was even more different. He used those that were thousands of miles away and those that were decades or even years ago. There is no reason to be invincible if the tactics of war are rigid.”
Wang Jiaxiang agreed:”The situation in the Soviet Union’s civil war is very different from that of our country:the First World War and the Napoleonic Wars It’s even more different here. The use of machinery is wrong.”
Mao Zedong continued:”The ancient Chinese military strategist said:’Know yourself and the enemy, you will never end up in battle.’ Our foreign consultant knows neither him nor himself.”
Wang Jiaxiang said:”I completely agree with you.”
Mao Zedong said mockingly:”Unfortunately, I am in a position where I have no right to speak.”
Wang Jiaxiang said:”Maybe, I think many comrades now agree with you.”
“Who do you think will agree with me?”
“I see politics There must be comrades in the bureau who agree with your opinion.”
“Have you talked with them recently?”
Wang Jiaxiang nodded.
“Well, we can find some comrades to exchange views.”
“I will pass your opinions to them.”
Wang Jiaxiang first After Zhang Wentian, he discussed in detail Mao Zedong and his own views. Zhang Wentian listened and clearly agreed. He also came to Wang Jiaxiang and Mao Zedong, used the march and rest to continue talking, and asked the guards and supplies, the health staff must maintain Mao Zedong’s safety and rest. In this way, the trio gradually formed a relatively unanimous view, believing that the direction and route of the Red Army must be changed, and Bogu and Li De should not be allowed to continue to command like this.
At the same time, Mao Zedong had a conversation with Zhou Enlai and Zhu De, and they got their support.
At this time, a legion political commissar Nie Rongzhen injured the soles of his feet and moved with the central column on a stretcher. He and Wang Jiaxiang trust and understand each other very much. Wang Jiaxiang told him bluntly that, according to the current situation, the military command of Bogu and Li De must be removed and the leadership must be reorganized. It is best for Comrade Mao Zedong to come out to command the army again.
After hearing this, Nie Rongzhen said happily:”I totally agree with it. I have already had this idea.”
As soon as the Red Army entered Tongdao County, Mao Zedong proposed to the central government to give up 2. The plan of the Sixth Army to join forces, the troops immediately changed to advance to Guizhou. On December 12, 1931, an emergency meeting of central officials was held to discuss Mao Zedong’s suggestions. Since this proposal was supported by Zhou Enlai, Zhu De, Wang Jiaxiang and Zhang Wentian, the meeting accepted Mao Zedong’s proposal. A few days later, the Central Committee held another Politburo meeting in Liping. As a result, fierce arguments broke out at the meeting. Mao Zedong and other Li lord avoided the frontal enemy, changed his army to the west, and fought to go to the Sichuan-Guizhou border to build another revolutionary base. Li De and others strongly opposed it. However, because Mao Zedong’s proposal was approved by the majority of comrades including Wang Jiaxiang and Zhang Wentian, and Zhou Enlai, who presided over the meeting and was specifically in charge of combat command, also clearly expressed his approval, the meeting decided to adopt the new action proposed by Mao Zedong. policy. Li De was furious because of the failure of the argument, but he had nothing to do. The Red Army resolutely swung Gexi’s fingers, broke through the natural danger Wujiang in one fell swoop, and then occupied the famous city of Zunyi in northern Guizhou, frustrating the enemy’s plan to encircle our army in western Hunan.
On January 15, 1935, an enlarged meeting of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee that reversed the historical fate of the Party, the Red Army and the Chinese Revolution, the Zunyi Meeting, was held as scheduled. Among the 20 people present at the meeting, except for the Politburo members and alternate members who acted with the Central Red Army, the other half happened to be what Mao Zedong referred to as the”princes of various roads”-the main heads of the Red Army headquarters and various corps.
According to the decision before the meeting, Bogu first made a summary report on the fifth anti-“encirclement and suppression” war. As expected by Wang Jiaxiang, Bogu responded to the fifth anti-“encirclement and suppression” campaign in the summary report, only generally admitting that it was not done well. When talking about specific issues, especially discussing the reasons for the failure, he pushed all the responsibility to the objective aspect, and actually had no understanding of his”Left” opportunistic errors.
Next, Zhou Enlai and Zhang Wentian made a report against the”Left” military line, and Mao Zedong made an important speech next. He used the incontrovertible facts of victory in the previous four anti-“encirclement and suppression” campaigns to challenge Wang Ming’s”Left” adventurism and dogma The error of ism has been thoroughly analyzed and criticized. He pointed out that the failure of the fifth anti-“encirclement and suppression” campaign was a mistake in military command and strategy and tactics, adventurism in the offensive, conservatism in the defense, and escapeism in the retreat. In this way, two completely opposing ideological viewpoints and policy lines appeared at the meeting. A serious and profound inner-Party struggle is completely on the table! The venue was silent and nervous.
At this critical moment, Wang Jiaxiang immediately stood up and stated in a clear-cut manner that he fully agreed with and firmly supported the opinions of Comrade Mao Zedong. He also severely criticized Li Dehe Bogu’s military mistakes, and pointed out the important reasons for the failure of the fifth anti-“encirclement and suppression” campaign. One is that Li De and others have repeatedly rejected the correct opinions of Mao Zedong and comrades and denied them and the broad masses of co-creating and effective practical experience in long-term struggles. A few or even a few people practice blind command that is divorced from reality. Having said that, he raised his head and glanced at Li De. It happened that Li De was also looking up at him, and cast a very dissatisfied look at him.
Wang Jiaxiang ignored this and further exposed that after Li De entered the Soviet area, all the work of the Military Commission was personally arranged by him. Bogu only listened to him, and collective leadership no longer existed. They have also developed a kind of punishmentism, suppressing the next, without making the slightest self-criticism towards themselves, and failing to listen to the correct opinions repeatedly put forward by others. This bad leadership style has brought extremely serious consequences.
Wang Jiaxiang conclusively pointed out:Facts have proved that China’s Red Army and China’s revolutionary war should and must be led by a Chinese revolutionist with practical experience like Mao Zedong to achieve victory. He solemnly suggested:Immediately reorganize the central military command organization, cancel Li De and Bogu’s military command, and let Mao Zedong participate in military command. After he finished speaking in one breath, he felt his heart relaxed and relaxed. Immediately afterwards, Zhu De, Peng Dehuai, Liu Shaoqi, Chen Yun, Li Fuchun and others also spoke at the meeting, criticizing the mistakes of”Left” adventurism and clearly supporting Mao Zedong’s leadership.
On the last day of the meeting, based on the opinions of the majority of comrades, several decisions were made:Mao Zedong was co-opted as a member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee, and the three-member regiment (referring to the party composed of Bogu, Li De, and Zhou Enlai) was cancelled. The Central Committee’s decision-making body for military command), abolished the highest military command powers of Bogu and Li De, and decided that Zhu De and Zhou Enlai, the chief leaders of the Central Military Commission, would still command the military. Zhou Enlai was the party entrusted by the party responsible for making the final determination to command the military. After the meeting, the Central Standing Committee divided the work, and Mao Zedong was Zhou Enlai’s helper in military command. The Zunyi Conference ended the rule of Wang Ming’s “Left” adventurism in the Party Central Committee and established the leadership of the new Central Committee represented by Mao Zedong. At the most critical juncture, it saved the Party, the Red Army, and completed the Long March for victory. Foundation. From then on, the party led the Red Army to climb the snow-capped mountains, cross the grassland, and overcome all kinds of difficulties, bringing the Chinese revolution to a new climax.
Mao Zedong often said to people later:”Wang Jiaxiang was the first to support me. It would not work without him at the Zunyi meeting. He cast a key vote.”