(The Woman Who Said History—Issue 1198)
At 6 am on December 5, 1968, a loud noise came from a corn field near Beijing’s Xijiao Airport. A huge fireball and Black smoke billowed into the sky, and an Il-14 small plane crashed into the ground and exploded.
The rescued PLA soldiers rushed to the scene, and the scene of the accident was unbearable. Thirteen burnt corpses were fragmented and scattered, and only one was seriously injured after rescue. Who survived.
It is puzzling that in the charred corpses, two corpses were held tightly together, and people tried to separate them, but due to the carbonization of the corpses, their limbs were kinked. Combining and entanglement, the soldiers had to cut off the limbs shaped like coke. When the corpse was separated, everyone widened their eyes. After a few seconds of silence, I do n’t know who broke the first heartbreak Then everyone cried on his knees, crying all over the airport.
The news reached Zhongnanhai. Premier Zhou even wept bitterly when he heard the report. He didn’t say a word for a long time. Who is the charred body? What exactly was found after the two embracing bodies were separated? What makes a country ’s prime minister so shocked? Let us revisit this history that has been forgotten by the world.
(1) Farmers and children from China will make Professor Yang look and take a look
In the 1960s, there was no DNA identification technology. People took the necks of the two embracing bodies with their necks. Behind a bunch of unburned white hair, one of them was recognized by Guo Yonghuai, a”two bombs and one star” Yuanxun scientist who is world-renowned and as famous as Qian Xuesen.
Guo Yonghuai, was born on April 4, 1909 in a peasant family in Tengjia Town, Rongcheng, Shandong. Guo Yonghuai was a young man who sought the path to a journal in his childhood. It is an unimaginable journey for a rural child like Guo Yonghuai to go through the public funded middle school students, go through Nankai University Foundation, and then to Peking University’s Department of Physics.
In 1938, Guo Yonghuai obtained the American Gengzi Study Abroad Fund, and was accepted by the Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Toronto, Canada with a score of more than 350 points in 5 courses. After enrolling, he took the master’s degree in only half a year, which made Professor JL Synge, the head of the Department of Mathematics, impressed:”I can’t think of such outstanding talents in China, which is an excellent young scholar I rarely encountered in my life.” p>
In May 1941, Guo Yonghuai entered California Institute of Technology in the United States, where he studied aerodynamics with von Karman, a “father of aviation” fluid mechanics master. Here, he met Qian Xuesen, the great brother who affected his life afterwards.
Although Qian Xuesen is 2 years younger than Guo Yonghuai, he has a wealth of social experience, a straightforward temperament, and a very outfield behavior. And Guo Yonghuai is so embarrassing, his book is full of life, and he doesn’t like to show anything. Qian Xuesen entered the division earlier than Guo Yonghuai. From then on, both academically and in life, he gave his younger brother Guo Yonghuai the meticulous care as a master, and the two formed a deep friendship.
(2) Dare to say”NO” to the United States, self-immolate the manuscript, return to the country and serve the country.
In the 1950s, Guo Yonghuai was one of the three pillars of the Cornell University Aviation Institute. With a great reputation in the American scientific community, he creatively developed a completely new method of calculation. Qian Xuesen named this method the”PLK method”.
In August 1953, China and the United States held ambassadorial talks in Geneva after signing the Korean Armistice Agreement. After the Chinese government’s efforts, the US government was forced to lift the ban on Chinese scholars from leaving the country, but set up various obstacles on the grounds of”maintaining national security.”
One day, Qian Xuesen came to Cornell University and found his younger brother Guo Yonghuai, complaining that the United States had refused his return visa. Guo Yonghuai gently comforted Qian Xuesen and waited. In fact, in Guo Yonghuai’s heart, there was a dream of returning home, because in his bones, there were always three Chinese characters.
The subjects studied by Guo Yonghuai often come into contact with some confidential information. The United States asked him to fill out a form with the following content:”If there is war, would you like to perform military service for the United States?” If he disagrees, he will lose his qualifications for secret secrets. Guo Yonghuai stated categorically that he is Chinese and has no obligation to serve the United States. He did not hesitate to fill in the form with”NO”.
In 1955, Qian Xuesen finally broke through many obstacles and returned to the motherland. He immediately summoned Guo Yonghuai across the ocean, and wrote:”Little Master, come soon! Here is the paradise for scientists … Come Come! Bring people here! Bring books !!! Come to the Institute of Mechanics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences! We have prepared offices and housing for you, and we are close to my house. We are neighbors … you can bring Computer, oh! Refrigerators can also be taken! Summer in Beijing is a bit hot …”
Under Qian Xuesen’s call, Guo Yonghuai was surging and reverent, but the US authorities will not let him go easily. He and his wife Li Pei were both inexplicably questioned, and strangers were often found near his home.
In 1956, the couple’s return visa was rejected again because he did not publish a valuable scientific paper.
Facing unreasonable obstruction by the US authorities, Guo Yonghuai, who has always been gentle, was provoked. He threw pages of manuscripts of his unpublished papers into the charcoal pile in public, and everyone was shocked. Guo Yonghuai’s move was to not give the Immigration Bureau an excuse not to let him return to China, and his wife Li Pei felt extremely sorry, but Guo Yonghuai said:”It doesn’t matter, the knowledge is in the scientist’s head, they can’t take it.”
In the autumn of 1956, Guo Yonghuai and his wife broke through many obstacles and finally returned to the motherland. They were cordially received by Chairman Mao and Premier Zhou.
After returning to China, Guo Yonghuai was deputy director of the Institute of Mechanics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, with Qian Xuesen as director. Qian Xuesen has a bright personality, Guo Yonghuai is quiet and delicate. Economy, handy.
(3) From”the layman” to”the two bombs and one star” Yuan Xun
In June 1959, the Soviet Union unilaterally tore up the agreement and refused to provide China with the mathematical model and technology of the atomic bomb Data, withdraw all technical data and experts, and put China’s just-started nuclear research and development into a corner.
One day in March 1960, Qian Sanqiang, the father of the Chinese atomic bomb, suddenly came to Guo Yonghuai. They talked for more than three hours, and they were very excited.
It turned out that the Party Central Committee instructed Qian Sanqiang to form an independent and independent atomic bomb R & D team in China. Qian Xuesen strongly recommended Qian Yonghuai to Qian Sanqiang, and asked him to undertake the mechanical security work of independently developing the atomic bomb. Qian Xuesen can be said to have recommended Guo Yonghuai because Li Guohuai’s specialty and atomic energy are not the same. For the atomic bomb, he is just a layman. However, Guo Yonghuai was an internationally renowned mechanics expert when he was in the United States, especially in the field of aerodynamics.
Thanks to this visit, Qian Sanqiang’s confidence increased, which convinced him that the impact of Guo Yonghuai’s aerodynamics on the atomic bomb was crucial. Immediately, Guo Yonghuai’s name and the Chinese Atomic Bomb were forever associated. Among the nuclear research team consisting of 105 experts and scholars, Guo Yonghuai was appointed as the deputy dean of the Ninth Academy, responsible for the theoretical exploration and development of the atomic bomb. He and experimental physics Together with Wang Pengchang and theoretical physicist Peng Pengwu, they formed the first three pillars of China’s nuclear weapons research.
In 1963, at the critical moment of the development of the atomic bomb, Guo Yonghuai followed the team to the Qinghai base at an altitude of more than 3800 meters. The climate here was volatile, and the minimum temperature in winter was minus 40 degrees. In addition to hypoxia and lack of supplies, many Researchers were swollen due to malnutrition, and 50-year-old Guo Yonghuai was particularly old with gray hair.
The appearance of an atomic bomb requires explosives to detonate. Detonation physics experiments are an important part of breakthroughs in atomic bomb technology. In order to obtain a satisfactory explosion model, Guo Yonghuai led the team to repeat the tests, even stirring the explosives in spite of the danger. He put forward the”two-way approach and the best choice” approach, and determined the best solution for the successful explosion of the first atomic bomb, which was later widely used in China’s first-generation weapon development.
On October 16, 1964, China ’s first atomic bomb exploded in Lop Nur, and on June 17, 1967, China ’s first hydrogen bomb explosion test was successful. When the mushroom cloud rose in the sky, all the staff boiled and cheered, but Guo Yonghuai fainted at the test site. He was too tired.
Comrades lifted him to a simple camp bed. After he woke up, Guo Yonghuai did not become overly ecstatic, but behaved extremely calmly. He wanted to go one step further and was locked in. Next scientific research target:”China’s first missile thermonuclear weapon launch test.”
(4) The plane crashed, Chinese people ran to tears, the Prime Minister cried.
Guo Yonghuai, who has been fighting for two months at the Qinghai base on December 4, 1968, is today’s missile fever. Breakthroughs have been made in nuclear weapon launch tests. He was so excited that he was about to send the test data to Beijing. Colleagues advised him:”It’s not safe at night, let’s go tomorrow.” Guo Yonghuai smiled and said,”It’s better at night, and I’ll be home after a night’s sleep.” Only in Lanzhou, when Lanzhou boarded the plane, it was already midnight.
At 6 am on December 5, 1968, the plane entered over Beijing and began to lower its altitude. However, when it was more than 400 meters above the ground, the plane suddenly lost balance and began to fall suddenly. A cornfield near the suburban airport exploded and caught fire.
In just ten seconds of the plane crashing and exploding, Guo Yonghuai and the security guard Mu Fangdong hugged him tightly. What is the reason for this? Is it because of nervousness? Let’s go back to the beginning of this article …
With the harsh” click”sound, people opened their entangled limbs and finally burned the two. The coke corpses separated, and then all the people present stood there with their mouths open. Time seemed to freeze and the air seemed to freeze. They were surprised to find that a leather briefcase was sandwiched between the chests of the two bodies. Although scorched, it is still basically intact under the protection of two embracing bodies. Opening the bag, people saw a moving scene:a thermonuclear missile test data file was intact and impressive. I don’t know who burst into tears, and everyone wept on his knees.
(5) The Republic will not forget that his name goes with Huanyu.
The bad news spread to Zhongnanhai, and Premier Zhou cried out in tears. The news spread to the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Master Qian Xuesen was even more distressed, and the cry shook through the office building of the institute. While losing scientists, they were all struck by the heroic feat of protecting the defense secrets of these two heroes.
The data and data protected by Guo Yonghuai are precious. On the 20th day after his sacrifice, on December 25, 1968, China’s first thermonuclear missile test was successful. On the same day, the Party Central Committee awarded Guo Yonghuai the title of”Martyr of the People’s Republic of China” and was the only martyr among the 23 honours of two bombs and one star.
Guo Yonghuai devoted his whole life to national defense scientific research, and almost became a person insulated from daily life. His life was extremely simple. In 1988, when the Institute of Mechanics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences made a white marble statue for Guo Yonghuai in the hospital, it turned out that A frontal picture of him could not be found. The statue was completed by the engraver according to the description of Guo Yonghuai’s students.
After the statue was completed, Li Pei, Guo Yonghuai ’s wife, removed his ashes from Babaoshan and buried them under the statue. At the same time, the ashes of the guard Martyr Mu Fangdong were buried under the statue, and the two martyrs of the Republic have never died. one place.
On January 12, 2017, it was hailed as” the most beautiful rose of the Chinese Academy of Sciences”,” light of Zhongguancun”,” young Mr. Li Pei, who was”the elderly” and”mother of Chinese applied linguistics”, died. According to her last wish, he was buried with her husband Guo Yonghuai in the ashes of the Qingming Festival in 2017.
In July 2018, the International Asteroid Center officially released an announcement to the international community:the asteroid number 212796 was permanently named”Guo Yonghuai Star”; the asteroid number 212797 was named”Li Peixing””. Since then, Guo Yonghuai and Li Pei, who have made outstanding contributions to China’s scientific undertakings, are forever engraved on the milestones of human civilization and go with the sun and the moon together with the world.
At the end of the article, the author has to mention the martyr Mu Fangdong who protected the nuclear weapons data with Guo Yonghuai. Due to the principle of confidentiality, we don’t know much about Mu Fangdong’s resume and life experience. As a guard, Mu Fangdong At the time of the sacrifice, he was only a young man in his early 20s, and rescued the”big weapon of the country” between life and death. Such a Chinese soldier is also a strong man!
(Text/History Woman · Zhang Wen)
Reference:”Two bombs, Yuan Yonghuai, Guo Yonghuai, who suffered an air disaster, and the corpse clinging to nuclear weapons data”,”Two asteroids to China” The name of Professor Guo Yonghuai of HKUST”.