When he was almost 13 years old, Mao Zedong left the Jingwanli private school. This time he was not transferred but suspended. In about three years from 1906 to 1909, Mao Zedong spent the only peasant life in his life.
Throughout his childhood and adolescence, Mao Zedong grew up in the countryside, mountains and fields. His hometown is an environment where he works at sunrise and returns at sunset. His family is also a family of laborers.
To do farm work, he must also use his brains
As early as five or six years old, he began to work sporadicly, dragging pigs in Tangjiatuo Grass, cattle, firewood, etc. After returning to Shaoshanchong, he officially engaged in the production activities of revitalizing the family business led by his father.
He and Chang Gong Mao Chuncheng used a dirt cart to push the manure. Mao Chuncheng asked him to push less. Mao Zedong said:”You can do it for the old man, and I can do it.” As a result, he just pushed a cart full of teeth. He had no palms on his shoulders when he went downhill, the wheels twisted, and the car turned over…
He was not discouraged, and he packed the dung scattered on the floor and pushed it. Fearing that something might happen, Mao Chuncheng called Mao Muwen to persuade him not to push so much.
Mao Zedong is not blindly”tyrant” in farm work, he will use his brain to improve efficiency. He and his cousin watched the cows together. There were a dozen cows in the upper and lower house. Seven or eight people put them together for two or three hours each morning. Everyone brought a basket and a knife. He asked the two youngest to watch the cows, the two larger ones to chop wood, and the other two to kill the grass. The cattle came back, the grass was divided, and the firewood was divided.
He often went to the elephant trunk mountain opposite to herd cattle, and divided everyone into three groups:watching cattle, cutting grass, and picking wild fruits, and finally distributed the fruits of labor evenly. But he didn’t want his share, he took the wild fruit and threw it to the sky, whoever grabbed it belonged to whom. He learned many farming tasks:plowing, planting, harvesting, cutting wood, and growing vegetables.
After a period of experience accumulation, he can even give some good suggestions to adult farmers. For example, according to the temperature changes at different times of the day, he can advise helper Wen Fusheng when to mow the grass.
He also likes to put the cows in the pond and use the grate to grate the hair. When the weather was hot and there were a lot of mosquitoes, he put the cut grass at the gate of the cowshed and let the cows stick out their heads to eat, so that the cowshed was cleaner and would not tease the mosquitoes. In addition, he also picks up the cow dung every day to prevent the cows from getting dirty and getting sick.
My father was busy doing business and was away for half a month within a month. Mao Zedong and his helpers did farm work together, including planting vegetables and carrying water.
In February and March, it’s time to plow the fields. Mao Zedong and Wen Fusheng exchanged their experiences:dig the fields, plow the slab field a little deeper, and don’t plow too deep the second. Tiancheng needs to be dug once a year. It needs to be filled, and the soil needs to be broken. It is better to fill it. For planting, you must first find a target before inserting it straight. When inserting, you have to sit in the water and keep your waist straight so that you can see the front. Straighten, the leg is slightly inward, back to a line. When making vegetables in the vegetable garden, dig deep into the pile of melons and don’t break them too much. The same is true for eggplant trees. The first time you dig deep, you can hoe the second time. When eggplants and peppers bloom, you must cut some thatch. After hoeing the pine and watering the manure, cover it with thatch, and only water later.
Labor gave Mao Zedong the skills of agricultural production and helped him develop a strong physique. When he was a child, his health was not very good. When he was 7 years old, he suffered a serious illness. Later, with a pair of iron legs, he walked the most difficult road in the world and did a vigorous career. Early manual labor.
Exposure under the scorching sun, walking in the wind,”bathing” in the heavy rain; walking barefoot on rocks, drilling thorns, fishing in ponds, picking fruits from trees… By fifteen or sixteen, Mao Zedong has grown sturdy, about 1.75 meters tall.
The closeness with the land and the peasants on the land had an important influence on Mao Zedong’s soul. He most naturally and profoundly recognizes the hardships of labor and the suffering of laborers, and thus cultivates peasant-style living habits, especially the same emotions and sorrows as peasants, so that he can think about China from the perspective of peasants. Social problems are the reason why he paid special attention to the countryside throughout his life, and became the key to his career success.
Suspension of classes and non-stop classes
Compared with ordinary farmers, this”farmer” is obviously different. At a certain point, he will come out of the farmers and stand on the height of the leader.
On the surface, Mao Zedong has stopped his career of seeking knowledge if he only considers the classroom as the source of knowledge.
In fact, suspension of school is good for him. Between heaven and earth, between nature and peasants, he learned more important things that he would never learn in private schools. This prevented Mao Zedong from developing into a”pure Confucian” who separated from the people, but could become a man in the future. A revolutionary leader who knows the sentiments of the people.
However, Mao Zedong did not stop studying with books.”Self-study” began to enter his life-the most praised good habit of reading in his life was formed during these 3 years of labor.
“Self-study” is very in line with Mao Zedong’s nature. He hates the pedantic education system that does not give people freedom. Self-study gives him great learning freedom. The autonomy is all in him. You can decide what you look at and how you look at it.
But there are also two for self-study The big limitation is time and books. This in turn cultivated his habit of drilling and squeezing, sneaking in busy, and efficient reading, which had a great impact on his career in life.
When Mao Zedong thought that he had completed the farm work assigned by his father with good quality and quantity, he hid in the shade of the trees on the mountain, looking for a good place to read the book with emotion. This move was finally known by the shrewd father, and a scolding was inevitable.
Mao Zedong tried his best to take his father to the field to check the farm work he had done. As a result, he did more quantity and quality than his father asked for. The father sent more labor, hoping that his son would not read those”useless” books. In this way, Mao Zedong could only read in the dead of night-after his parents fell asleep, he quietly pulled off the sheets and covered the doors and windows. , So as not to leak the secret through the crack of the door, because my father is not allowed to waste lamp oil during night reading.
Shaoshanchong’s books are limited. He will find everything he can find, including the”Mao Family Tree”. He borrowed many books from a Zhai Gong in Lujiawan. After finishing reading Shaoshanchong’s book, he went over the mountains to borrow from his grandmother’s house. There are two study rooms in Tangjiatuo, and the cabinets are full of books. He reads books as soon as he gets there. He reads from morning to night, and he particularly likes novels. He also reads”The Prosperous World” and”Xiangxiang County Chronicles”.
On the cover of an arithmetic book, Mao Zedong neatly wrote”Medium Practical Arithmetic Mao Zedong”. The inside page reads:”The way of the algorithm is to multiply and divide first, and then add and subtract, and then the order will be followed!”
Self-study is combined with labor, which is the physical strength he later emphasized. The combination of labor and mental labor is destined to give him special gains.
One day, he suddenly had a question:Why did the books he read were filled with military commanders, civil servants, scholars, and the like, farmers without farming? He wondered. Later, through analysis, he found the answer:the ruler occupies the land, and the peasant is the ruled. How can the non-status man who farms for the ruler become the protagonist in the book? He vowed to turn this point over, which is exactly the simple people-oriented concept he has obtained through labor and study.
1 Li Ji. The story of Comrade Mao Zedong’s youth M. Hankou:Central South People’s Publishing House, 1951.11.
2 Chairman Mao, Mao Zedong’s former residence in Shaoshan youth museum collection, 1973.02
author:Yu Long sword, Shaoshan in Hunan Deputy curator and researcher of the Comrade Mao Zedong Memorial Hall
Editor in charge:Xiaolin
Web editor:Song Ying