Marxist view of history believes that the development of world history has gone through five major social stages, namely primitive society, slave society, feudal society, capitalist society and socialist society. Once, the Marxist view of history had the supreme authority in the Soviet Union, China and other countries, and it was written into the history textbooks of middle schools, elementary schools and universities. In the last century, China’s several general histories and series of historical chronologies were written in strict accordance with the Marxist historical concept.
With the development of the times, people have become more and more aware of the mistakes of this view of class history, and the concept of civilization history, materialistic history, and global history have begun Be valued by people. Many domestic scholars have also begun to change, believing that Marx’s theory is not applicable to China, or even to the world. According to the classification of civilization history, mankind should be divided into the age of ignorance, the age of barbarism and the age of civilization. The age of civilization is divided into traditional civilization and industrial civilization. This is currently generally accepted.
in the previous In the article, I have already mentioned that the concept of feudal society does not apply to China. It is the result of Chinese scholars’ mechanically copying the Marxist view of history. The so-called feudal society of Marx is the feudal system in the Middle Ages in Europe (feudal statehood, feudalism for short), and this is not a social form, but a political system. This kind of system will appear in any nation when it enters the initial stage of civilization. For example, feudalism prevailed during the Xia, Shang and Zhou periods. The emergence of feudalism in Europe in the Middle Ages was not historical progress, but historical regression.
The slave society mentioned in this article is the same. According to Marxism, in the early stage of the emergence of the state, the upper-class nobles would use the state apparatus to turn other lower-class Lebanese people into slaves for exploitation. Therefore, according to economics, slaves are made into a social form. However, this is a big mistake. First of all, the phenomenon of slaves has existed from the time human beings entered class society to modern times. For example, slavery prevailed in North America before the Civil War. Could it be that the United States at that time remained in a slave society?
The reason why Marx defined the so-called Greek Rome in Europe as a slave society was because he saw that there were many slaves in ancient Greece and Rome. However, we must also be clear about the source of slaves. The vast majority of slaves were captured by the enemy in foreign wars, or bought abroad. The citizens of this country rarely become slaves. If there are, they are debt slaves, not slaves in the true sense. After Solon’s reforms, the phenomenon of debt slaves disappeared. Therefore, slaves are not exploiting lower-class civilians, but using enemies and Gentiles as tools. There were frequent wars between ancient Greek and Roman city-states, and a large number of people became slaves.
But in China, the number of slaves is far less than that of Greece and Rome. Since there is no clear record of slavery in the Chinese literature, Guo Moruo believed that the ancient”sacrifice” was a manifestation of slavery. Later, Guo Moruo decided that Xia, Shang and Zhou were slaves. At that time, there was controversy in the academic circles. Fan Wenlan believed that Xia and Shang were a slave society and the Western Zhou Dynasty was a feudal society. In the end, Guo Moruo won, and it has become a common view in textbooks today. But if you are more rigorous, you will find that Chinese burials not only occurred in the Xia, Shang and Zhou Dynasties, but also in the Qin, Han, Sui and Tang Dynasties. Is the Tang Dynasty also a slave society?
Of course, the slaves of Xia, Shang and Zhou also existed. Generally speaking, when the dynasty succeeded in the foreign war, it would use the captives as slaves. For example, many slaves in the Shang Dynasty were Qiangs. The slaves at that time were mainly used for sacrifices, and were also called sacrifices. However, these slaves were not mainstream in society, and it was the village residents who undertook most of the production in the Xia, Shang and Zhou Dynasties.
so-called The village community developed from the commune in the clan era. They are relatively independent villages formed by the blood of the clan. The enfeoffment system is to give these villages to the nobles at all levels as food and tax sources for the nobles. Then the village residents will hand in about one-ninth of the products, which is the”well field system” model. During the Western Zhou Dynasty, the residents of these villages were called”savages”, while the nobles were called”national people.” The management of the savages in the three generations is very weak, as long as they pay the tribute on time. The savages have no obligation to serve as soldiers, nor do they have the right to educate and participate in politics.
Therefore, it can be said that the main production mode of the Xia, Shang and Zhou Dynasties was still the village community, which was relatively primitive. In the past, in order to prove that Xia, Shang and Zhou were a slave society, people called the”communist riots” in the Western Zhou Dynasty as a slave uprising, which was a great class struggle. However, it can be proved through the literature that the national riots were the expulsion of the nationals by the nobles in the capital, and it was a coup d’état within the nobles.
If Xia, Shang and Zhou are considered to be a slave society, it also cannot explain why the number of slaves in China reached its peak in the Han Dynasty. Land annexation was serious in the Han Dynasty, and many farmers lost their land and became slaves. There are many titles of slaves in Qin and Han historical materials, such as”slave”,”maid”,”tong”,”li”,”cangtou”,”姫”,”concubine”,”chen”,”maid”,”ke” Etc., generally called”servants”. The number of slaves and maids in the Western Han Dynasty is estimated to be about 1 million. These slaves were used for activities such as farming, weaving, construction projects, and border defense.
The problem of slaves and maids was a major social problem in the late Western Han Dynasty. Wang Mang once implemented a policy of restricting slaves, but was opposed by bureaucratic aristocrats and powerful landlords and could not be implemented. After Liu Xiu established the Eastern Han Dynasty, he ordered the release of slaves seven times. At the same time, Liu Xiu also ordered the improvement of the status of slaves and maids and gave them national judicial guarantees. For example, in 35 AD, Liu Xiu once ordered three times to prohibit killing, wounding and torturing slaves and maids. Since then, slaves and maids began to have life safety protection. These edicts of Liu Xiu basically changed the status and nature of ancient Chinese slaves. In the past, slaves and servants were indistinguishable from livestock and were arbitrarily killed by their masters. Now, slaves and servants have improved their status and become members of society, but they are only attached to the family. Big family. From the Eastern Han Dynasty to the Wei, Jin and Southern and Northern Dynasties, the number of slaves and maids in China was very large. It was not until the Northern Wei Dynasty introduced the equalization system that this phenomenon was changed.
So, to summarize Come out, there is no slave society in China. Slave is just a social phenomenon or social system, and it cannot be used as a social form. The number of slaves did not constitute a major group in ancient China. At its peak, it was only more than 1 million, which was only a few tenths of the total population of the society. The number of slaves in ancient Greece and Rome was several times that of citizens. The small number of slaves in China also shows that the ethnic oppression in ancient China was not as serious as in the West. For example, after Sparta conquered the Hilo, they all became slaves. Nothing like this has ever happened in China.