■On the night of the emergency meeting of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee, Mao Zedong sent an urgent telegram to Zhou Enlai who was still in Moscow.
After Mao Zedong received a telegram from Zhou Enlai on the afternoon of October 10, he fell into anxiety:should he send troops immediately or postpone the dispatch? That night, he received a telegram from Peng Dehuai from Andong (now Dandong) to prepare for a meeting with Kim Il Sung in the DPRK on the morning of the 11th. These two telegrams made Mao Zedong hesitate. In the end, he decided to power Peng Dehuai immediately, informing Peng that he would not enter the DPRK the next day but quickly return to Beijing for a meeting with Gao Gang.
Nie Rongzhen rushed to the war room of the General Staff Headquarters at about 1 am on the 11th to call Peng Dehuai:”Your call has been received, and the original plan has changed. The chairman invites you and Gao Gang to return to Beijing tomorrow. The central government has important issues to discuss.”
On the afternoon of the 11th, Peng Dehuai arrived in Shenyang by train from An Dong. On the 12th, Peng Dehuai convened an emergency meeting between the leaders of the Northeast Bureau and the Northeast Military Region in Shenyang and Gaogang, and formulated some emergency measures and solutions in response to the difficulties of the troops investigated in Anton, especially the logistics supply problems. At 8 o’clock that night, Peng and Gao received Mao Zedong’s urgent telegram:“(1) The order on October 9 will not be implemented temporarily, and the departments of the 13th Corps will still be training on the spot. (2) Please Comrade Gao Gang and Dehuai tomorrow Come to Beijing to talk.”
At this time, the situation in North Korea has worsened. On October 9, MacArthur issued an ultimatum to the leader of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea in a threatening tone:“The last time you and the troops under your command are asked to immediately lay down their weapons and stop fighting.” At 4 pm on October 10, India Ambassador to China Pan Nijia went to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of China to forward a telegram from British Foreign Secretary Bevin to Chinese Minister of Foreign Affairs Zhou Enlai, stating:”If North Korea is unwilling to lay down its weapons, then the’United Nations’ commander will have no alternative. Faced with the threat and intimidation of the enemy’s army, Kim Il Sung summoned the Chinese Chargé d’affaires in North Korea, Chai Junwu, on October 10, and clearly stated:“We will never lay down our weapons, we will never surrender, and we will resist to the end.”On the 11th, Kim Il Sung delivered a radio speech to the whole country, saying:”Our most important task today is to defend every inch of the motherland with blood.”
After breakfast on the 13th, Gao Gang and Peng Dehuai immediately Fly back to Beijing from Shenyang by special plane. In the afternoon of the same day, Mao Zedong once again presided over an emergency meeting of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee in the Yi Nian Hall in Zhongnanhai. After all night discussions, the Politburo comrades agreed that even without the support of the Soviet Air Force, they must immediately send troops to aid North Korea. The meeting called for self-reliance, to carry forward the rich experience of our army in the history of defeating superior equipment with inferior equipment, overcome various difficulties, and immediately enter the DPRK to meet offensive enemies.
On the night after the Politburo meeting ended on the 13th, Mao Zedong sent an urgent telegram to Zhou Enlai, who was still in Moscow:after discussing the results with the Politburo comrades, they agreed that our army should join the war and must join the war. , Participating in the war has great benefits, and not participating in the war is extremely harmful.
After Zhou Enlai received Mao Zedong’s telegram in Moscow, he urgently met with Stalin and said firmly:“Mao Zedong and the Political Bureau of the Central Committee have just made a telegram. We have made another decision to send troops to North Korea immediately! If you leave the air force, China will join the war.” When the Soviet translator translated Zhou Enlai’s words to Stalin, he remained silent for a while, and then said to himself:”It is better to be a Chinese comrade, or a Chinese comrade…”
From the evening of October 1st Kim Il-sung asked China to send troops to the evening of the 19th, the Chinese People’s Volunteers crossed the Yalu River for a total of 18 days. During the 18-day decision-making process, it seemed that Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist Party had come a long and difficult journey.
20 years later, on October 10, 1970, when Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai met with Kim Il Sung, they recalled this tortuous historical process together. Mao Zedong said:”Things are always so twists and turns. At that time, because China was shaken, Stalin was also discouraged, and said:Forget it! Isn’t the prime minister going to the end? The opinions go?” Zhou En said:”Two opinions, let him choose. We need his air force to support us when we send troops.” Mao Zedong said:”We only need their air force to help, but they will not do it.” Zhou En said,”Start. At the time, Molotov agreed, and Stalin later called him and said that the air force could not be used for support, and the air force could only go to the Yalu River.” Mao Zedong said:”It was finally decided. Out of the air force, let’s go. I think we still have to thank the Soviet Union. It always helps us with arms and ammunition, which is half price. There is also a car fleet.”
■The 17-nation armies headed by the United States and the three-nation armies headed by China have a life-and-death contest on the Korean battlefield
The Chinese Communist Party headed by Mao Zedong decided After the resistance to US aggression and aid to Korea, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union headed by Stalin later decided to dispatch its air force to support China’s resistance to US aggression and aid to Korea. As a result, after World War II, the largest local war with the largest number of belligerents—
—a Korean War between the 17-nation army and the 3-nation army kicked off. The”United Nations Army” headed by the United States consists of combat troops from 16 countries including the United States, Britain, Australia, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Canada, France, the Philippines, Turkey, Thailand, South Africa, Greece, Belgium, Luxembourg, Colombia, and Ethiopia, as well as Sweden, The medical teams of India, Denmark, Norway, and Italy are composed of five countries, and the South Korean army is also under the command of the”United Nations”, a total of 17 combat troops. The United States used 1/3 of its army strength, and its battlefield strength reached more than 302,400 at its peak; 1/2 of its naval strength, dispatched 210 ships of various types, and 383 naval aviation combat aircraft; 1/5 of its air force. Tens of thousands of aircraft of various kinds were dispatched successively, and the number of aircraft on the battlefield reached more than 1,700.
During the Korean War, the”United Nations Army” invaded North Korea at the highest number of 932,600 troops. There were more than 590,000 South Korean troops under the command of the”United Nations Army”, with a total of more than 1.52 million people. The United States ranked No. One, with a strength of more than 300,000; the United Kingdom ranks second with a strength of more than 14,000; Canada ranks third with a strength of more than 6,100; Turkey ranks fourth with a strength of more than 5,400.
Fighting against the 17-nation armies is the North Korean and Soviet Union armies headed by China.
Chinese army. The Chinese People’s Volunteers have successively invested 27 field armies to participate in the War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea; set up the Volunteer Army’s artillery headquarters, with the second, eighth, and seventh artillery divisions, the 21st rocket artillery division, and the 31st and third anti-tank and destroyer artillery divisions. The 12th Division, the 61st, 62nd, 63rd, and 64th Anti-aircraft Artillery Divisions entered North Korea to fight; the volunteer army engineer command post was formed, and the engineer troops that entered the DPRK successively to undertake various engineering support tasks have the first Fourteenth, sixteenth, fifteenth, seventeenth, tenth, twenty-second, eighteenth, twenty-first, seventh, first, fourth, sixth, ninth, twelfth The 3rd Battalion of the Regiment and the 3rd Regiment and the 3rd Battalion of the 26th Regiment, a total of 14 regiments and 2 battalions; the formation of the volunteer army armored command post, successively has the first tank division, the second regiment, and the second division The third regiment, the fifty-third regiment of the 26th division, and the fourth, fifth, and sixth tank regiments, independent tanks, the second and sixth regiments entered the war in North Korea. By the beginning of 1953, the Volunteer Army Tank Troops on the North Korean front had maintained 4 Each regiment has 40 tanks; the Volunteer Railway Corps was formed, and 9 railway divisions and 2 railway regiments entered the war in North Korea. After the establishment of the Sino-Korean Air Force Joint Command, the Volunteers successively invested 10 aviation The division and two bomber divisions entered the North Korean battle, shooting down and wounding 425 enemy aircraft. In addition, the 18th Division and First Division of the Volunteer Army Public Security Army also participated in the War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea. From October 1950 to July 1953, the Chinese People’s Volunteers have put more than 1.35 million troops on the battlefield.
The North Korean army. The Korean People’s Army was developed on the basis of the anti-Japanese guerrillas led by Kim Il Sung, but it is mainly composed of Korean soldiers returning from China and the Soviet Union. The earliest First Division of the People’s Army was formed in March 1947. Before the outbreak of the Korean War in June 1950, the People’s Army had 10 infantry divisions, 2 independent regiments, 1 armored brigade, 1 independent armored regiment, and some other technical troops. In addition, there are 5 garrison brigades with strong combat effectiveness, with a total of 135,000 people, 150 T34 tanks, 600 artillery, and 196 aircraft. The 10 divisions of the People’s Army are the first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, tenth, thirteenth, and fifteenth division. The first 7 divisions are full-staffed divisions, which are also the offensive units. The maximum strength of the Korean People’s Army reached more than 450,000.
Soviet army. Stalin was not indifferent to China’s deployment of troops to North Korea under tremendous pressure. The Soviet government finally faced the risk that the United States might launch a third world war. In early November 1950, that is, after the Chinese People’s Volunteers fired their first shot to resist U.S. aid to North Korea on October 25 On the seventh day, the Air Force destroyer aviation division and the anti-aircraft artillery unit participated in the Korean War. By the end of the Korean War, the Soviet Army had 12 fighter aviation divisions, 4 antiaircraft artillery regiments, 2 independent fighter aviation regiments, and 2 searchlight regiments. A total of 72,000 officers and soldiers participated in the Korean round of battles, including more than 1,500 pilots. . In 1952, the highest year, the Soviet army had 26,000 combatants. In addition, eight aviation divisions participated in the training of Chinese and Korean Air Force pilots. According to statistics from the Soviet Union after the war, during the Korean War, the Soviet Army had 72,000 fighters from 12 aviation divisions. A total of 63,000 sorties were dispatched and 1,400 air battles were conducted. A total of 20,820 pilots participated in combat flights and shot down the”United Nations.” There are about 1,300″Military” aircraft. In addition, the Soviet air defense antiaircraft artillery unit shot down 212 enemy aircraft, while the Soviets lost 345 aircraft and more than 200 pilots were killed.
At the end of the Korean War, the two sides had more than 3 million troops on the battlefield. The United States used all modern weapons except the atomic bomb. The bombing density of the”United Nations Army” and the strength of the battlefield Both surpassed the Second World War.
■The War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea lasted two years and nine months. The world’s number one power was forced to sign at the negotiating table
China The first combat troops of the People’s Volunteers entered North Korea on October 19, 1950. On October 25th, the 118th Division of the Fortieth Army of the Volunteer Army in Liangshuidong and Fenghadong areas, and the South Korean Infantry 6th Infantry Division 2nd Regiment Avant-Garde Reinforced 3rd Battalion who invaded from Onjeong to Buk Town An encounter war fired the first shot to resist U.S. aggression and aggression and opened the prelude to the war to resist U.S. aggression and aggression. In 1951, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China decided to set October 25, 1950 as the anniversary of the War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea.
In this battle, the Volunteers wiped out 1 battalion and 1 artillery squadron in South Korea, killing and injuring more than 470 enemies and capturing 1 US military adviser. After the war, Mao Zedong sent a congratulatory message:”Celebrate your victory in the first battle.”
The War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea is divided into two stages:The first stage, from October 25, 1950 to June 10, 1951, The North Korean army fought five consecutive strategic battles, mainly mobile warfare. In the second stage, from June 11, 1951 to July 27, 1953, the Chinese and North Korean forces carried out protracted active defensive operations, focusing on positional warfare with a few tactical counterattacks.
The five campaigns carried out in the first phase belonged to the implementation of strategic counter-offensive operations.
The first battle:October 25th to November 5th. The main battlefield is the area north of the Qingchuan River on the Western Front. The Volunteer Army used MacArthur’s mistake of judging that China’s dispatch of troops was “very unlikely” and planned to end the Korean War before Thanksgiving. It adopted the method of advancing the enemy and advancing at the same time, attacking both the east and west lines at the same time. Annihilated most of the South Korean Sixth Division, annihilating more than 15,000 enemy troops, and sent the”United Nations” troops to the south of the front line of the Qingchuan River, initially stabilizing the Korean war and creating favorable conditions for future operations.
The second battle:November 6th to December 24th. After being hit, the U.S. military mistakenly believed that China was only a symbolic dispatch of troops and did not dare to engage in a large-scale contest. On November 24, it launched a general offensive of”reaching the Yalu River” in an attempt to occupy the entire territory before Christmas on December 25. Korea. Mao Zedong and Peng Dehuai decided to use their tactics to lure the enemy deeper. After the enemy was lured to the predetermined area, the east and west sides suddenly launched a fierce counterattack, forcing the”United Nations forces” to implement a general retreat from land and sea. In this battle, more than 36,000 enemies were wiped out, of which more than 24,000 were US troops. The enemy retreated to the south of the”38th Parallel” and turned into defense. The U.S. military authorities have to admit that November and December are the”most melancholic days” for the U.S. military, and they suffered”the most shameful defeat in history.”
The third battle:December 31, 1950 to January 8, 1951. In order to save the defeat, the United States played a”ceasefire and then negotiate” conspiracy through the United Nations in an attempt to gain a breather and make a comeback. In order to expose this conspiracy, the Chinese and North Korean troops launched a full-line attack on the enemy’s defense positions near the”38th Line” and pushed the front to near the”38th Line.” However, due to the difficulty of supply and transportation and the intention of the enemy to carry out side landings and north-south pincers, Peng Dehuai ordered to stop the pursuit and ended the campaign. In this battle, the North Korean army advanced 80-110 kilometers, annihilated more than 19,000 enemies, shattered the enemy’s conspiracy and increased the enemy’s mood of defeat.
The fourth battle:January 25 to April 21, 1951. After the third battle, the main force of the Chinese and North Korean troops went to rest. The U.S. Army found that the Volunteers had insufficient front-line forces and difficulties in supplying materials, and took advantage of the opportunity of the Chinese and North Korean troops to retreat to launch a full-line counterattack. In view of the characteristics of the enemy’s offensive, the Chinese and North Korean troops adopted a deployment of west to east. In this battle, a certain volunteer unit fought fiercely for three days and nights with the first division of the U.S. Army on the 1020 Highland in Gapyeong area. It used flexible and changeable combat methods, which made the enemy pay a huge price for every further advancement and entered the second batch of combat troops. Took time for the assembly. As of April 21, the Chinese and North Korean troops blocked the enemy in the area near the”38th Line” and wiped out more than 78,000 enemies, successfully completing the defense mission.
Fifth battle:April 22 to June 10. In accordance with Mao Zedong’s guidelines on”preparing for a long-term war and striving for the short-term”, the Chinese and North Korean troops launched an offensive against the enemy on the Western Front and then the Eastern Front on April 22. On the western front, the Chinese and North Korean troops broke through the two defense lines of the”United Nations Army” and pushed the front to the area along the Shuangjiang River on the front line of Seoul, maintaining the main dynamic on the battlefield; on the eastern front, the Chinese and North Korean troops annihilated the three South Korean Army divisions. . In this battle, a total of more than 82,000 people were wiped out from the enemy, and the enemy moved into strategic defense. The battle line was stabilized near the”38th line” and a stalemate was formed.
In the first to fifth battles to resist U.S. aggression and aid to Korea, the Chinese and North Korean forces wiped out more than 230,000 enemy troops, forcing the enemy to change from a general attack to a general retreat, and stabilize the front at the”38th line” Nearby, the Korean war has been reversed, the myth of the invincibility of the US military has been thoroughly debunked, and it has made great contributions to assisting the Korean people in their anti-aggression struggle and maintaining peace in the East and the world.
In the second phase of the Korean War, the two sides turned into a stalemate. The Volunteer Army adopts the strategic policy of”persistent combat and active defense.” The main form of combat is positional warfare, counterattacking the enemy’s counterattack.
This stage smashed the enemy’s summer and autumn offensives,”strangulation” and”germ warfare” in 1951, and launched the spring and summer 1952 positional operations and autumn tactical counterattacks. In addition, there were two battles in Shangganling and Jincheng.
The battle of Shangganling. The US military launched the Battle of Shangganling on October 14, 1952. It successively invested more than 60,000 troops, dispatched 3,000 aircraft and more than 170 tanks, and used 18 artillery battalions to attack the Shangganling position of less than 3.7 square kilometers. During the 43 days of fierce battle, the US military fired 2 million artillery shells and 5,000 bombs at Shangganling, and launched more than 900 charges. However, the volunteers held their positions tenaciously and wiped out 27,000 enemies.
Battle of Jincheng. On July 13, 1953, the Volunteers, with the cooperation of the Korean People’s Army, launched the Battle of Jincheng. This campaign was the last battle in the Korean War. It lasted 15 days from July 13 to the signing of the armistice on 27th, 1953. This battle was the only battle-scale offensive operation carried out by the Chinese People’s Volunteers since crossing the Yalu River. It defended the newly occupied area of 180 square kilometers, wiped out more than 50,000 enemies and regained 178 square kilometers of land.
In the second stage, the Chinese and North Korean troops killed and captured more than 720,000 enemy people.
The Chinese and North Korean forces finally stabilized the front on the”38th Line” and forced the”United Nations Army” to sign the”Agreement on the Korean Military Armistice” on July 27, 1953. The”Eight Line” is a temporary military demarcation line. So far, the war to resist US aggression and aid Korea, which lasted for two and nine months, ended with the victory of the Chinese and Korean soldiers and civilians and the defeat of the United States. Clark, the commander-in-chief of the”United Nations Army” who signed the armistice agreement later said in his memoirs:He was”the first American commander in American history to sign an armistice agreement without victory.”
In the Korean War, the Chinese and North Korean People’s Army wiped out more than 1.09 million enemy troops (the Korean People’s Army wiped out more than 130,000 enemies), including more than 390,000 US troops , Shot down and injured more than 10,000 enemy aircraft, destroyed, damaged and captured 3064 enemy tanks, sunk or damaged 257 enemy ships, destroyed, damaged and captured 7,695 enemy guns. The US military consumed 73 million tons of various combat materials in the Korean War and spent 83 billion U.S. dollars in warfare, second only to its consumption in World War II. The Chinese People’s Volunteers also paid a huge price, with more than 360,000 casualties, 5.6 million tons of combat materials consumed, and 6.2 billion yuan spent in war.
During the War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea, the Chinese People’s Volunteers defeated the world’s number one enemy, the United States, and helped the people of the world see the power of the Chinese nation after the founding of the People’s Republic of China. The unprecedented rise in status has washed away the shame that the imperialist powers have brought to the Chinese nation in the past century. ■
This article is the original article of”Party History Expo”.
No reprint without permission.
Infringement must be investigated.