From a rebel in an arranged marriage to a revolutionist
On May 14, 1903, Qian Ying was born in Qianjiang County Qianjiazhuang, Zhouji Town, is born with a milk name, a clan name is Gui, a scientific name is Qian Ying, and it is called Jingxia and Hansong. Later, due to long-term involvement in the party’s underground work, he used the aliases Chen Xiuying, Chen Haiping, Peng Yougu, Huang Shuyun, Chen Ping, Qian Xiuying, Qian Jiying, etc. In the early years when I was studying at Moscow Chinese Workers’ Communist University (Moscow Sun Yat-sen University), there was also a Russian name called Tarasova.
Qian Ying’s father Qian Xunchen and mother Peng Zhengyuan opened in Zhouji Town, Qianjiang County A small pharmacy. Before Qian Ying was born, it happened that Qian Xunchen won the first prize in the lottery. The whole family believed that this child would bring good luck to the family, so Qian Ying was particularly favored after his birth. Qian Xunchen and Peng Zhengyuan had one son and three daughters, and Qian Ying was the fourth. Although she is a daughter, she enjoys the same treatment as a man in the family, and is called”four uncle” and”four master”.
Qian Ying entered a private school at the age of 7. She was familiar with the Four Books, Five Classics, Tang Poetry and Song Ci, and she loved poetry and composition, and won praise from the school teacher. Because his grandfather and father were in business, Qian Ying had more opportunities to accept new things and new ideas from the outside world. After she first became acquainted with the world, she yearned for personality independence and had a clear rebellious spirit. She hated feudal habits and persuaded her mother to stop binding her feet.
In 1922, Qian Ying was admitted to Qianjiang County Vocational Girls’ School, with excellent academic performance, and stayed on to teach after graduation. At the age of 19, she has been born into a slim girl, and there is an endless stream of people who want to propose marriage. After selection, Peng Zhengyuan accepted a betrothal gift from a large family and became engaged to his daughter. Qian Ying hates all the tragedies caused by arranged marriages, and feels that the future of seeking knowledge and studying is about to be ruined. Therefore, she insisted on giving up the marriage, but she was severely reprimanded by her elders. Qian Ying repeatedly pleaded with his mother, but still couldn’t get understanding, so she made up her mind to fight to death.
Qian Ying lived in Lijiazhuang, Maqiao Town, Xianning County, Hubei Province when she was a child
She wrote a suicide note, He touched a pair of scissors and jabbed it towards his neck, suddenly bleeding. After hearing the abnormal sound, the mother came and snatched the scissors from her daughter. Fortunately, she was rescued in time to save her life.
The result of the struggle forced her mother to divorce her, but it left a deep scar on her neck. In the early summer of 1923, Qian Ying finally persuaded her mother to go to Wuhan to study, after unremitting struggles, and stepped into the door of a female teacher in Hubei as he wished.
Life and death with her husband Tan Shoulin
A school with a glorious revolutionary tradition. Chen Tanqiu used his status as a teacher to go to the school to organize students to oppose feudal-style discipline and advocate cutting hair and reading new books. A year before Qian Ying entered the school, the school broke out with the famous”female teacher student wave”, which shocked the three towns of Wuhan.
While studying hard and pursuing the truth, Qian Ying also pays attention to strengthening literary cultivation, tempering his character, and cultivating his sentiments. He yearns for what Tao Yuanming describes in The Peach Blossom Spring The kind of beautiful society where men farming and women weaving, equality and harmony often say that they want to explore a way to realize this kind of society.
In March 1927, Qian Ying was introduced by Wu Ruizhi to join the Chinese Communist Youth League in Hubei female teacher. A month later, Chiang Jieshi launched the 412 counter-revolutionary coup and slaughtered the communists frantically. The young Chinese Communist Party faced a severe test of life and death. At the historical juncture of the great waves, Qian Ying, who had only joined the League for two months, resolutely became a member of the Communist Party of China, and gradually grew from a rebel who resisted arranged marriages to a revolutionary.
In July 1928, Qian Ying came to Shanghai for the first time and was assigned to the Secretariat of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions as secretary and internal traffic officer. Work under the direct leadership of Secretary-General Tan Shoulin.
In 1925, the editorial department of”Republic of China Daily in Wuzhou, Guangxi Group photo of the staff, the second from left in the front row is Tan Shoulin.
Qian Ying and Tan Shoulin gradually developed love during their work. In December 1928, they held a simple wedding. This year Qian Ying 25 years old, Tan Shoulin is 32 years old. Less than a hundred days after his marriage, Qian Ying received a notice from the Organization Department of the CPC Central Committee:to go to Moscow Sun Yat-sen University to”study revolution.”
Qian Ying and Tan Shoulin are very close to each other. During the two years of studying in the Soviet Union, Tan Shoulin wrote more than 130 letters to her, one letter per week on average. They were all delivered through underground traffic officers from the Chinese and Soviet parties. In addition to introducing the domestic situation, the letter was more concerned and encouraged. Every time Qian Ying received a letter, she read it with her classmates and studied the domestic revolutionary dynamics.
Moscow Sun Yat-sen University
At the beginning of 1931, Qian Ying returned to China from the Soviet Union. On a moonless night, she and a classmate who had returned to the country disguised themselves as businessmen and came to the border. They boarded a carriage with a carriage. The driver said nothing and drove the horse. The carriage went smoothly after more than 20 minutes of speed. Crossed the national border. Take the train from Manzhouli to Harbin, then transfer to Dalian, until she embarked on the steamer bound for Shanghai, Qian Ying sighed deeply and said:”I finally returned to the motherland!”
After Qian Ying and Tan Shoulin reunited in Shanghai for a long time, the party organization decided to send their couple to work in the revolutionary base in western Hunan, Hubei and Hubei. Qian Ying was immersed in the joy of the couple’s reunion and returning to his hometown to make a revolution. On the eve of the departure, the All-China Federation of Trade Unions was suddenly destroyed by the enemy, and Tan Shoulin decided to stay and deal with the aftermath.
In the early morning of April 22, 1931, the Kuomintang Shanghai Police Bureau and the Laozha arresting house general Tan Shoulin arrested. On May 30, 1931, Tan Shoulin gave a generous justice at Yuhuatai, Nanjing, at the age of 35.
Qian Ying and Tan Shoulin have been married for more than 3 years,”getting together for only a hundred days”, and not even leaving a photo of the husband and wife, which is sighing. Qian Ying was distraught when she heard the bad news and determined to complete her husband’s unfinished business.
The marriage of Qian Ying and Tan Shoulin was the only marriage in her life. After Tan Shoulin died bravely, the flame of love in Qian Ying’s heart was extinguished and she became enthusiastic afterwards. Someone introduced someone to Qian Ying, and some admirers confessed to her, but she rejected them all and never remarried for life.
Persistent struggle in prison
January 1933, The Provisional Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee with Qin Bangxian as the main person in charge was forced to move to the Central Revolutionary Base, and Shanghai was shrouded in white terror. Qian Ying came to Shanghai at this time and was destined to experience the most severe test of life.
Soon, according to the arrangement of the Jiangsu Provincial Party Committee, Qian Ying served as Zhou Chaoying’s secretary. In order to avoid the enemy’s pursuit, Qian Ying changed her name to Peng Yougu for safety reasons and concealed her experience of making a revolution in the Western Hunan and Hubei Revolutionary Base. This was a simple precautionary measure that later saved her life.
Nanjing Capital Military Police Command Detention Center. Tan Shoulin and Qian Ying were detained here.
In April 1933, Zhou Chaoying was arrested for mutiny and led the special agents of the KMT Secret Service Headquarters in Shanghai to arrest Qian Ying. On July 12, 1933, Qian Ying was sentenced to 15 years in prison and transferred to Jiangsu No. 1 Prison. She never recognized her status as a Communist Party member, and organized four hunger strikes in prison.
In 1936, Qian Ying was transferred to the Capital Introspection Institute and was assigned to Group B. Qian Ying led Group B in the Capital Introspection Institute to use every opportunity to fight face-to-face with the enemy. The Capital Institute of Introspection put Qian Ying and other 7 people in the trumpet, and Qian Ying would not compromise. Three months later, the hospital had no choice but to send Qian Ying and others back to the female prison.
On July 7, 1937, the Lugou Bridge Incident broke out. The KMT and the Communist Party realized the second cooperation. Zhou En came to Nanjing and asked the KMT authorities to release”political prisoners.”
In September 1937, Qian Ying (middle) took a photo with inmate Xia Zhixu (left) and Zhang Yuexia (right) after being released from prison. (Photo by Tong Xiaopeng)
According to Zhou Enlai’s instructions, Tong Xiaopeng, Chief of the Confidential Section of the Beijing Office of the Eighth Route Army, took a car to the Capital Introspection Institute in the afternoon. Received Wang Genying, Xia Zhixu, and Xiong Tianjing to the Eighth Route Army office. They immediately reported to Zhou Enlai and Ye Jianying about the situation in the Capital Institute of Introspection and the pseudonyms used by Qian Ying and others. Ye Jianying personally called the dignitaries to He Yingqin, Minister of Military Affairs of the Nationalist Government. The Capital Institute of Introspection hated Qian Ying for taking the lead in causing trouble in prison, and tried everything possible to prevent her from being released.
After fierce struggle and repeated negotiations, on September 25, when the Japanese plane bombed the most severely, Qian Ying led the last 13 political prisoners in the Capital Institute of Reflection. Out of the gate of purgatory. From his arrest in April 1933 to his release in September 1937, Qian Ying was detained for a total of 4 years and 5 months in the Kuomintang Jiangsu No. 1 Prison and the Capital Inspectorate.
In April 1964, Qian Ying (first from right) went to Wuhan to inspect and monitor work, and went to the Guishan Festival to sweep the tomb of Jingyu Martyrs.
Won the reputation of”Female Bao Gong”
At the end of 1952, in order to further strengthen the party’s disciplinary inspection work, Qian Ying was transferred to Beijing as the deputy secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection.
In September 1954, in accordance with the”Constitution of the People’s Republic of China” and the”Organization Law of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China”, the People’s Supervision Committee of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China was changed to the Ministry of Supervision of the State Council. Qian Ying served as the first minister of the Ministry of Supervision and concurrently served as the deputy secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection. In April 1959, due to the adjustment of the national management system, the Ministry of Supervision was abolished. Qian Ying succeeded Xie Juezai as the Minister of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and concurrently as the Deputy Secretary of the Central Supervisory Committee. In the winter of 1960, Qian Ying was transferred from the Ministry of Internal Affairs and served as the full-time deputy secretary of the Central Supervisory Committee.
“Three years of difficult times”, Qian Ying organized and guided the screening and rehabilitative work in Anhui, leaving a rich chapter in the history of discipline inspection and supervision of the People’s Republic of China. , Zhou Enlai and Deng Xiaoping spoke highly of it. Liu Shaoqi praised her for being”a good comrade who has leadership skills and can be alone.” Zhou Enlai praised her for being”selfless and selfless.” Deng Xiaoping affirmed that she was”selfless and able to adhere to principles.”
[This article is from”A Plum Blossom of the Chinese Communist Party-Qian Ying” published by People’s Publishing House. Due to space limitations, it has been deleted. 】