Xibaipo, located in the middle of Pingshan County, Hebei Province, is a small mountain village on the north bank of Hutuo River with only 70 or 80 families . It borders the Taihang Mountains in the west, and connects with the Beiping in the east. It is only 90 kilometers away from Shijiazhuang, an important town in North China. On the eve of the national liberation, the Party Central Committee and Mao Zedong chose the site here as the”base camp” for commanding the People’s Liberation War. They organized and commanded 24 battles including the Three Great Wars and created a new China.
In March 1947, Hu Zongnan aggressively attacked Yan’an and faced a powerful enemy 10 times his own. The Party Central Committee and Mao Zedong did it at the end of March. Decision:Take the initiative to evacuate Yan’an. At the same time, it was decided that Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Ren Bishi, and others should form the Central Committee of Former Enemies, lead the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the People’s Liberation Army headquarters to stay in northern Shaanxi, preside over the daily work of the Central Committee and the Military Commission, and command the National Liberation War; Liu Shaoqi, Zhu De, and Dong Biwu formed the Central Working Committee. , Led some central government officials to North China to engage in work entrusted by the central government. On April 11, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China decided to temporarily station most of the staff of the Central Committee and the Military Commission in the Linxian area in northwestern Shanxi to form a Central Rear Committee with Ye Jianying as the secretary and Yang Shangkun as the commander of the rear detachment to coordinate rear work.
In May, Liu Shaoqi and Zhu De, accompanied by Liu Lantao, deputy secretary of the Jinchaji Central Bureau, came to Fengcheng Village, Pingshan County, Hebei Province. After a period of investigation and demonstration, it was determined that Xibaipo Village in the central part of Pingshan County should be used as the office of the Central Working Committee, and it was officially stationed in Xibaipo in early July.
Mao Zedong, who moved to northern Shaanxi, has been considering the work of the Central Working Committee after it arrived in Shanxi, Chacha and Hebei. When the Central Working Committee just arrived in Xibaipo, Liu Shaoqi and others received Mao Zedong’s announcement on June 14 on”Solving the Jinchaji Military Issue”,”Holding a Land Conference”, and”Establishing a Financial Office.””Instructions…
At that time, the PLA was still at a disadvantage in various battlefields across the country. However, under the leadership of the Party Central Committee and Mao Zedong, after only one year of battle, nearly half of the enemies attacking northern Shaanxi were wiped out and dragged down. The People’s Liberation Army turned into an internal counterattack in the northwest battlefield and regained Yan’an on April 22, 1948. At the same time, in accordance with the instructions of Mao Zedong and the Central Front Committee, under the leadership of Liu and Zhu, the soldiers and civilians of North China, in coordination with Nie Rongzhen, commanded the Jinchaji field troops to start a local counterattack. From the second half of 1947, they organized four battles in Qingcang, Baobei, Qingfengdian and Shijiazhuang, connecting the two liberated areas of Jinchaji and Shanji, Luyu. The situation of the National War of Liberation gradually shifted from strategic defense to strategic offensive. On March 23, 1948, Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, and Ren Bishi led the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the People’s Liberation Army headquarters to bid farewell to northern Shaanxi, which had been fighting and living for many years, and crossed the Yellow River east through the Jinsui liberated area. They arrived at the Jinchaji Military Region on April 13. The headquarters of the headquarters-Nanzhuang, Fuping County, Hebei Province, soon came to Xibaipo Village, Pingshan County, Hebei Province, to join the Central Working Committee. On May 1, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China officially began to work in Xibaipo.
At that time, the Chinese revolution was at a major turning point. The KMT army had an advantage in number and equipment. However, the victory of the Chinese revolution is in sight, and the task of the strategic decisive battle between the Kuomintang and Communist forces has been put on the agenda of the Party Central Committee and Mao Zedong. After arriving in Xibaipo, Mao Zedong, with the assistance of Zhou Enlai and others, from May of that year to March of the following year, in an adobe room full of combat maps in Xibaipo, he used a radio transmitter to remotely control various battlefields across the country and organized successively Commanded 24 battles, basically destroyed the main military force on which the Kuomintang relied to maintain its reactionary rule, and laid a solid foundation for the victory of the People’s Liberation War in the country!
24 battles commanded by Mao Zedong and others, especially Liaoshen Battle, Huaihai Battle, Pingjin Battle, the three major strategic decisive battles, the scale of their large scale and the many annihilation of the enemy are extremely rare in the history of wars in China and even the world. The 24 battles are:
1. Wanxi Battle
Battle time:May 2 to May 17, 1948; combat area:Neixiang, southwest of Henan Province , Zhenping, Xichuan, and Dengxian counties; participating troops:Central Plains, East China, two major field troops and troops of the Tongbai Military Region; the number of annihilated enemies:more than 12,000 captured, more than 9,700 killed or injured, a total of more than 21,700.
2. Battle of Jirecha
Battle time:May 13 to June 25, 1948; combat area:Jirecha border area and Pinggu line, Beining line, Tangshan Shanhaiguan line; participating troops:the main force of the Second Corps of the North China Military Region and the Jicha Reliao troops; the number of annihilated enemies:17,350 captured, 7,040 killed or injured, a total of 24,390.
3. Wandong Battle
Battle time:May 29 to June 3, 1948; combat area:east of Nanyang, Henan Province; participating troops:Central Plains and East China The two field armies each have one; the number of annihilated enemies:more than 5,300 prisoners, more than 6,000 killed or injured, a total of more than 11,300.
4. Battle of Yanzhou
Battle time:May 29 to July 15, 1948; combat area:Shandong Yanzhou and Jinan to Lincheng and other places; participating troops:East China Field Army, Shandong Corps and other units; number of enemies:44,720 captured, 18,900 killed or injured, a total of 63,620.
5. Battle of Kaifeng
Campaign time:June 17 to June 22, 1948; combat area:Kaifeng, Henan; participating troops:East China Field Army; number of annihilated enemies:captured 23560 people, 16120 people were killed or injured, a total of 39680 people.
6. Battle of Jinzhong
Campaign time:June 17 to July 21, 1948; combat area:Shanxi Lingshi to Taiyuan Pingchuan area; participating troops:North China Military Region Eighteenth Corps and North China Military Region troops; number of enemies to be wiped out:a total of about 100,000.
7. Battle of Lianshui
Campaign time:June 20 to July 15, 1948; combat area:Lianshui, Siyang, and Donghai regions in northern Jiangsu; participating troops :East China Field Army, Subei Corps and Military Region troops; number of enemies to be wiped out:7,300 captured, 2940 killed or injured, 10,240 in total.
8. Battle of Suiqi
Battle time:June 27 to July 6, 1948; combat area:Sui County and Qi County, Henan Province; participating troops:East China Field Army and one Central Plains Field Army; number of enemies to be wiped out:30050 captured, 24240 killed or injured, a total of 54,290 people.
9. Battle of Xiangfan
Campaign time:July 2 to July 16, 1948; combat area:Xiangyang and Fancheng areas in Hubei; participating troops:Central Plains Army No. 1, Troops of Tongbai and Southern Shaanxi Military Region; number of enemies to be wiped out:more than 17,000 captured, more than 3,500 killed or injured, a total of more than 20,500.
10. Baobei Campaign
Campaign time:July 16-20, 1948; combat area:Xushui and Dingzhou areas north of Baoding, Hebei Province; participating troops:The first, second, sixth and seventh columns of the North China Field Army; the number of annihilated enemies:more than 8,480 prisoners, more than 2,290 killed or injured, a total of more than 10770 people.
11. Battle of Chengzhen
Campaign time:August 8-13, 1948; combat area:Chengcheng, Chenyang, Shaanxi; participating troops:Northwest Field Army; J Number of enemies:6,080 captured, 3,000 killed and wounded, a total of 9,080 people.
12. Battle of Liaoshen
Battle time:September 12 to November 2, 1948; combat area:western Liaoning and Shenyang, Changchun Regions; participating troops:Northeast Field Army and Northeast Military Region troops; number of annihilated enemies:306,200 captured, 83,000 surrendered, 56,800 killed and injured, 26,800 uprising, a total of 472,800.
13. Battle of Chasui
Campaign time:September 7 to November 15, 1948; combat area:Chadong to Suiyuan Baotou area; participating troops:North China The Second Corps, the Third Corps; the number of annihilated enemies:12,280 captured, 8,780 killed or injured, a total of 21,060.
14. Battle of Jinan
Campaign time:September 16-24, 1948; combat area:Shandong Jinan area; participating forces:East China Field Army, Shandong Military Region troops; destroy the enemy Number:More than 110,000 people in total.
15. Battle of Taiyuan
Battle time:the first stage, October 5 to December 4, 1948; the second stage, April 20 to 24, 1949 ; Combat area:Taiyuan area, Shanxi; Participating forces:North China 18th, 19th, and 20th Corps, Northwest Field Army
The seventh column and Jinzhong local armed forces; the number of annihilated enemies:captured in two stages 94,960 people, 1,300 surrendered, 28,530 people were killed or injured, a total of 124,790 people.
16. Battle of Libei
Battle time:October 5 to 18, 1948; combat area:north of Dali, Shaanxi and south of Chengcheng; participating troops:northwest Field army; number of annihilated enemies:11050 captured, 1300 surrendered, 13200 killed or injured, a total of 25550.
17. Battle of Zhengzhou
Campaign time:October 21-22, 1948; combat area:Zhengzhou, Henan Province and the area to the north; participating troops:Central Plains Army 1; The number of enemies killed:more than 9,850 captured, 1,420 killed or injured, a total of more than 11,000 people.
18. Battle of Yingcheng
Campaign time:October 24 to 25, 1948; combat area:Yingcheng, Hubei; participating units:Central Plains Field Army 1st and Jianghan Military Region troops ; The number of enemies to be wiped out:more than 3,200 captured, more than 300 killed or injured, a total of more than 3,500.
Battle time:1948 November 6, 1949 to January 10, 1949; combat area:centered on Xuzhou, from Haizhou in the east, Shangqiu in the west, Lincheng (now Xuecheng) in the north, and the Huaihe River in the south; :The East China Field Army, the Central Plains Field Army, and the East China, Central Plains, and North China Military Region forces each; the number of annihilated enemies:327,070 prisoners, 17,1400 killed or injured, 28,500 uprisings, 28,600 surrenders, totaling 555,570.
20. Northwest Winter Battle
Battle time:November 15-28, 1948; combat area:Shaanxi Chenyang, Chengcheng, Tongchuan, Bocheng and other areas; participated in the war Troops:Northwest Field Army; Number of enemies to be wiped out:17,730 captured more than 6,930 killed or injured, a total of more than 24660 people.
Battle time:1948 November 29, 1949 to January 31, 1949; combat areas:Beiping, Tianjin, and Zhangjiakou; participating troops:Northeast Field Army, North China Military Region, two field corps and local troops; number of enemies to be wiped out:232510 captured, 29790 killed and injured People, 8,700 surrenders, 250,000 reorganized, 521,000 in total.
22. Battle of Fancheng
Battle time:December 20-22, 1948; combat area:Hubei Fancheng area; participating forces:Central Plains Jianghan Military Region troops; number of enemies:3,900 people were captured, 300 people were killed or injured, a total of 4,200 people.
23. Battle of Jingmen
Battle time:February 2-7, 1949; combat area:Hubei Jingmen, Dangyang area; participating forces:Central Plains Jianghan Military Region troops; Number of enemies:7610 captured, 1010 killed and injured, a total of 8620 people.
24. Northwest Spring Campaign
Campaign time:February 20 to March 24, 1949; combat area:Shaanxi Weibei and between Jinghe and Luohe; Troops participating in the war:the first field army; number of annihilated enemies:4920 captured, 1,600 killed and injured, 810 insurgents, 7,330 in total.
Among the 24 battles mentioned above, there were 5 battles that wiped out the enemy’s 100,000 to 550,000, and annihilated more than 2.22 million people. In addition to the previous (from May 1947 to May 1948) the 4 battles commanded by the Central Working Committee (which wiped out more than 58,330 enemies), in less than two years, the CPC Central Committee and Mao Zedong actually organized Xibaipo In 28 battles, we achieved brilliant results of annihilating more than 2.28 million enemies!
In the more than 300 days and nights of Xibaipo, Mao Zedong and others strategized, The decisive victory over thousands of miles has created a spectacle in the history of modern warfare, which fully demonstrates the far-sighted, talented and superb art of war command of him and his comrades!
During this period, Mao Zedong always worked all night without fatigue. Especially during the command of the Three Great Wars, he often regarded eating as a”burden”, and he always had a meal after many urges; he also had very little sleep time, and he had not gone to bed for two or three days. I also lie down for three or four hours and get up to work. He always personally writes the telegrams, never ask others to do it
and devotes all his energy to the command of operations in various strategic regions across the country. For example, when commanding the Liaoshen Campaign, Mao Zedong drafted 46 telegrams from the start to the end of the campaign (plus the telegrams drafted before the start of the battle, 77 in total). The message was detailed and specific, and even talked about where the operation was performed. This battle lasted for 52 days. Although our army paid the price of more than 69,000 casualties, it won the victory of destroying more than 470,000 enemies. During this period, he also paid attention to and commanded 5 battles in other strategic areas.
On the fourth day after the end of the Liaoshen Battle, that is, on November 6, Mao Zedong and others commanded the Huaihai Battle of East China and Central Plains. In the Huaihai Campaign, the front-line command received a total of 64 telegrams drafted by Mao Zedong, which included operational policies and operational deployments at various stages. The content of the telegram is also detailed and specific, such as:”The focus of the first phase of this campaign is to wipe out the enemy east of Xuzhou and cut off their retreat at sea. The method of play is to make an intermediate breakthrough first, and then completely wipe out Huang Baitao. The second phase…”After reading the telegram, Liu and Deng understood, and smiled:”This is called eating one, holding one, and watching one.” The battle lasted 66 days and wiped out more than 550,000 enemies. It was the most critical decision between the KMT and the Communist Party. The big battle.
23 days after the Huaihai Campaign was launched, the Pingjin Campaign began on November 29, 1948. 21 days after the Huaihai Campaign, the Pingjin Campaign ended on January 31 of the following year. In this battle, there were 89 telegrams sent from Xibaipo to the front. In the 64-day battle, more than 520,000 KMT troops were annihilated and reorganized.
At that time, in order to be able to process the telegrams in front of you in time, Mao Zedong always came and responded, sometimes drafting two or three telegrams in an hour. The copy arrived again, so I had to send the most urgent first. According to statistics, while in Xibaipo, Mao Zedong drafted 197 telegrams for the front line in an old house of only 16.3 square meters. Therefore, Zhou Enlai later said:“Chairman Mao commanded the largest People’s Liberation War in the smallest headquarters in the world.” He called Xibaipo “Chairman Mao, the Party Central Committee entered Peiping and liberated the last village in China. command post”.
Some people say that”New China was created from Xibaipo”, while others said that”New China came from here.” These statements are correct and vivid and vivid. Although the strategic decisive battle between the two parties and the two armies was not carried out in Xibaipo, and even the sound of gunfire was not heard here, Mao Zedong was here, the CPC Central Committee was here, and the People’s Liberation Army headquarters was here. /p>
Some important battles, that is, most of the battles in the entire liberation war, were given orders and commanded here. Here determines the fate of China. Therefore, it is appropriate to say that”Chairman Mao commanded the largest People’s Liberation War in the smallest command in the world” and created a great New China!
Written by Liu Bingfeng
This article is the original of”The Party History Expo”.
No reprint without permission.
Infringement must be investigated.