■Considerations and Salutations in Beijing■
From September 11th to 17th, there will be more than 300,000 people including representatives from all walks of life across the country and the capital, as well as various envoys and foreign guests in China. Go to condolences and pay tribute to Mao Zedong’s legacy.
A reporter from Xinhua News Agency reported that the crowd of condolences”walked slowly from both sides of Chairman Mao’s body and paid homage to the remains of the most beloved leader. They couldn’t restrain the great sorrow in their hearts. Many people cried. Yelling:’Chairman Mao, Chairman Mao, we will always miss you.'” On the last day,”the cry was endless all day long. People in front of Chairman Mao’s body, step by step shouted’Chairman Mao, Chairman Mao’, Tears are all over my clothes, and I can’t bear to leave for a long time.”
On the first day, mainly members of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee, members of the Central Committee, alternate members of the Central Committee, ministers and deputy ministers of central and central government agencies, and senior generals of the People’s Liberation Army expressed their condolences. After offering condolences, Hua Guofeng and others stood guard beside Mao Zedong’s body.
Fu Xuezheng of the condolence group saw Xu Shiyou,”He has a serious face, wears a faded military uniform, and a pair of eye-catching sandals woven with white thread, with a pinch on the tip of the shoe. Purple tassels. He looked east and west, as if observing people’s movements. In the lounge, he patted the pistol in his waist and said to the staff:Whoever makes trouble today, I’m not kind to him.”
The next day, Mao Anqing came with his wife Shao Hua and son Mao Xinyu.
Luo Ruiqing, who was knocked down at the end of 1965, came on the third day. She was in a wheelchair, crying, and had to stand up and bow. Fu Xuezheng and Luo Yu stood up with him, and he”bowed to Chairman Mao five or six times in a row.”
The Haoran who participated in the watch said:”I stood in a row with several watchers, shocked by the sorrow of these tens of millions of people, and they all accompany in tears.””In the stream of weeping people, I recognized Guo Fenglian in Dazhai. She was held up by others, crying and refused to leave, and was almost carried out of the mourning hall. I also saw Chairman Mao’s two daughters Li Min and Li Ne. They were able to hold themselves in tears. Exhausted and dull expressions. They stood silently by the bed of the soul, and after bowing deeply, they stared at their father in silence. After a while, they left silently.”
Participate in the afternoon of the 14th. The condolence Ye Shengtao stated that he”approached Chairman Mao’s body and was so confused that he could not stand to admire him. I remembered it for the first time in March 1949, and today is the last sight.”
At 5:30 pm on the 16th, members of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee once again expressed condolences and stood by Mao Zedong’s body until 6 o’clock when the condolence activities ended.
Guo Moruo paid homage to Mao Zedong’s legacy when he was ill, and then tried his best to participate in the guard.
While Wu Xiuquan paid tribute to Mao Zedong’s remains and bid farewell to his body, he saw many old comrades who had passed their sixties and even those who were rare, crying like a child:”For decades, no matter what the dangerous situation and sinister situation are. The environment, as long as we receive Chairman Mao’s instructions or even just think of him, we have the strength and courage to overcome everything. With him, we have victory, hope, and light. Now that we lose him, we are really like Suddenly they became’orphans’…”
Gao Zhi stood in front of Mao Zedong’s body for a long time, and his tears continued to flow down:”It’s hard to suppress his grief. There are a thousand words to say to him. The old man said…Chairman, rest in peace! I will always remember you.”
Fu Chongbi, who was defeated in 1968, recalled:”We were only allowed to line up for a look, and we were not allowed to guard Chairman Mao. Let’s go. Commander Xu Shiyou was very annoyed with the Gang of Four and asked them why they didn’t let us follow Chairman Mao’s old comrades to guard the Chairman.”
The young female worker Yu Xiangzhen walked in tears and walked out of the hall. Weeping and crying, colleagues all persuaded. In fact, she was reminded of the exhortations made by her parents working in Xinhua News Agency before they traveled to Vietnam three months ago:“According to reliable sources, Chairman Mao’s health is already very fragile. If his old family leaves, the domestic situation may get out of control… Mom and Dad gave me two special plans they envisioned secretly, so that in case of serious turmoil or civil war, I can use this plan to rescue the elders in the family first, and then take my sister to escape.”
■An unprecedented scale of memorial meeting
The main venue of the”Great Leader and Mentor Chairman Mao Zedong Memorial Meeting” is located in Tiananmen Square.
The huge portrait of Mao Zedong draped in black yarn hangs in the center of the tower. In front of the tower, a red high platform was built, on which the wreaths presented by party and state leaders and Jiang Qing were placed. On the east and west sides, there are wreaths presented by various departments of the party, government, and military, and 29 provinces, cities, and autonomous regions.
Tiananmen Square is solemn and solemn.
Millions of people in the capital came early to Tiananmen Square and East and West Chang’an Avenues, extending to Dongdan and Xidan. They wore black veil on their arms and white flowers on their chests, standing in line.
At 2:30 pm on September 18, all members of the funeral committee and representatives of workers, peasants and soldiers stepped onto the high platform.
On the stage, Jiang Qing is dressed in black, covered with black gauze, and only shows his face. The wreath she presented was signed”Your student and close comrade-in-arms Xiaoqing” (In the condolence hall, Jiang Qing gave the wreath written”Sorrowful tribute to the great mentor Chairman Mao Zedong”;”Your student, comrade Jiang Qing, Mao Anqing, Li Min, Li Ne, Mao Yuanzhi, Mao Yuanxin”).
Yang Zhengquan, who was in charge of the live broadcast, was so nervous that”he can’t breathe, his legs are shaking” before the broadcast. He recalled:“The square was extremely quiet, Beijing was extremely quiet, I just heard sobbing and the pounding sound of my heart.” “At 2:50, I gestured to Fang Ming to start! He Turned on the microphone switch, paused for a while, as if deliberately calmed down, and took a long breath, the voice of’Central People’s Broadcasting Station! Beijing TV’ spread all over Beijing, all over China, all over the world. !”
Xinhua News Agency reported:”At three o’clock in the afternoon, Comrade Wang Hongwen, Vice Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, announced the start of the memorial meeting. The audience stood in full standing, and millions of people mourned for three minutes. A military band composed of 500 people played. A tragic and majestic sorrow and joy. The live broadcast of the conference was transmitted to thousands of households through radio and television. The tragic and majestic sorrow and music spread to the cities and countryside of the motherland, to the mountains and rivers, to the vast frontiers, and to every corner of the country. The great motherland is silent, eight Hundreds of millions of people with tears in their eyes, solemnly determined to mourn…”
The first vice chairman of the CPC Central Committee and Premier of the State Council Hua Guofeng delivered a eulogy.
Hua Guofeng said:The death of Chairman Mao is an immeasurable loss to our party, our army and the people of all ethnic groups in our country, to the international proletariat and revolutionary people of all countries, and to the international communist movement. The entire party, the entire army, and the people of all ethnic groups in the country must actively respond to the call of the Party Central Committee, turn grief into strength, and inherit Chairman Mao’s legacy. We must engage in Marxism and not revisionism; we must unite and not split; we must be open and honest, not engage in it. Conspiracy. Under the leadership of the Party Central Committee, carry out the proletarian revolution initiated by Chairman Mao to the end.
Wang Aiguo, a member of the military band, recalled:”About two-thirds of the time, perhaps it was over-sadness or over-work. Hua Guofeng leaned forward and lost his balance. The eulogy will be finished.”
Luo Ruiqing, Fu Chongbi, Wang Zhen, Zhang Aiping, Han Xianchu and others attended the conference. Luo Ruiqing got out of the wheelchair, leaned on crutches, and insisted on standing upright.
He Zizhen, who lives in Shanghai, sent his niece He Haifeng and niece He Xiaoping to Beijing for the funeral on her behalf.
Lin Feng, the former principal of the Central Party School who had been detained for many years in Qincheng Prison, was in the ward at this time and asked his wife Guo Mingqiu to help him, facing Tiananmen Square silently and bowing three times.
At the memorial meeting, the philosopher Feng Youlan wrote a poem:”The crowds in front of the monument are like forests, silently mourning the sound of the earth. The watch towers are still there, and the leaders of the past are not seen.”
The conference is over in half an hour.
Liang Shuming did not attend the memorial meeting. Earlier, the unit informed him that he was at home and not to go out. On that day, he was watching live TV at the Street Revolutionary Committee.
■Memorial services in some places and units
From the government locations of provinces, cities, and autonomous regions to towns and communes as”branch venues”, first listen to the live broadcast in Beijing, and then hold a memorial service .
Wen Cun recalled by the troops stationed in Urumqi:Wang Hongwen’s”three bows to Chairman Mao” took too long. As a result, after we bowed twice, his”one bow” only started. We bowed five times. Yang Yong, commander of the Xinjiang Military Region, delivered a eulogy,”Everyone feels sad like a knife cut. Many people cry bitterly, and tears can’t stop flowing. My heart is heavy.”
The educated youth Kang Chengjie attended the memorial service of the 23rd Company of the Heilongjiang Construction Corps.”What an indescribable mood at this time! A thousand emotions and a thousand words all merged into tears. , All cast into one sentence:”The great leader and mentor Chairman Mao will be immortal!””
The masses of the Sanjiang Seven-Star Farm in the Northeast were in tears, and some lay underground and cried… more than 30 The crowd cried and fainted, most of them were women.
At the beginning of the memorial meeting in Yingkou City, Shandong, the dim sky suddenly blew violently, and a thick black cloud came with the wind. During the silent mourning, the wind and rain poured down, it can be said that”Curriculum fell from the sky for me”. After a minute or two of silence, the dark cloud was swept away by the wind again.
At the memorial meeting in Baoji City, Shaanxi, some people cried and sang:”Chairman Mao, how do your old people leave?””You are our great savior, why did you leave the country? Do it…” There were cries and singing in the venue.
At the memorial service in Dafang County, Guizhou, Gao Zhixian recalled that in silent mourning,”After someone cried out, then many people cried loudly and screamed! No one dared to persuade, let alone stop… …”
At the memorial meeting in Fuzhou, many people fainted. Shi Xiaoyu, an educated youth, described:“When the dead person was in silent three minutes, no one even helped him, so I didn’t dare to help.”
The Xiamen No. 1 Middle School and One student at the time later recalled:“Our whole school teachers and students arrived. The square of the Workers’ Culture Palace in Xiamen participated in the national memorial meeting. We bowed to Chairman Mao’s portrait three times with the loudspeaker, and many people cried. “The country is sad! The country is sad!” A neighbor in her sixties used Fuzhou. The words are repeated.” In some communes, when the memorial meeting was announced on the radio and mourning music was broadcast, all the cars near and far honked their horns to express their grief, and there was even more cries on the venue. Many poor and lower-middle peasants are rolling on the ground:”Chairman Mao, who will take care of us when you go, how can we live…”
The mourning for Mao Zedong can be said to have created many The most in the world, such as the number of people wearing black veil, the length of wearing it (some as long as one month), and the number of mourning halls (only Yiyang County, Hunan, with 284 mourning halls and 271 wreaths in the Central Spirit Hall), The scale of the memorial ceremony (the”branch venues” are all over the country), as well as the shutdown of factories, schools, and shops across the country that afternoon.
■Full of hope and doubts about the future of China
After Mao Zedong’s death, people think most about where China is going in the future and what they should do.
The feeling of the translator Shaboli is:”Who can imagine a new China without Chairman Mao? What should we do without him? Especially now, China is in such a difficult situation.” Xu Youyu, an educated youth”China is going to change drastically, and perhaps, the destiny and future of our generation will also change with it.” Zhu Qingqing, an educated youth, wrote in his diary:”Where is China going?!””Our motherland will not change color?!”Some young people have argued that the political situation will ease a little bit and will not engage in political campaigns, because no one has the prestige of Mao Zedong. Some people worry about whether they can be transferred back to the city. The people in Shaoshan are worried that there will be war. During the”criticizing Deng” period, Mao Dun worried that the country would be in chaos after the death of Chairman Mao.
Ma Shitu, who was the deputy head of the Propaganda Department of the Sichuan Provincial Party Committee, and a close colleague, tried to see a little bit of news from every news in the newspaper, in the gaps in every article, and behind every photo. Come,”We see the sorting of the list of Chairman Mao’s funeral committee and the locations of the memorial meeting, the host and the list of eulogyers, and we feel uneasy. Except for Hua Guofeng, that group of people have the upper hand. If Hua Guofeng is emptied by them, Without the supreme power, they can stir up trouble with the majority and seize power with pretensions.”
Dong Tiecheng, political commissar of the School Affairs Department of the Military Academy, said to a friend:”The Gang of Four is going to be on stage, and we are going to go up to the mountain to fight guerrillas.”
Educated youth Zhang Tiesheng and Liu Jiye met late on the 9th. The leaders of the Liaoning Provincial Party Committee reported their thoughts and expressed their worries about the country’s leaders and the country’s destiny and future.”We must be especially alert to revisionism from the central government.”
Some people are also ready to listen to the publication of Chairman Mao’s will.
Geng Biao believes that there is no will:”If there is any last word, after Chairman Mao’s death, the Central Committee’s”Report to the Whole Party, the Whole Army and the People of All Ethnic Groups” and the eulogy delivered by Comrade Hua Guofeng It will be mentioned, but nothing is mentioned in these documents.” Chen Changjiang, the former captain of Mao Zedong’s guard, also said:Mao”has not left any suicide notes, nor has he explained his last words to anyone.”
Not long after Mao Zedong’s death, the struggle between the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the”Gang of Four” headed by Hua Guofeng began secretly.
At the memorial meeting in Beijing, no one knew what the members of the funeral committee on the stage thought.
Haoran recalled:”I stood behind Hua Guofeng with the other members, listening to him read the eulogy, looking at the ocean-like crowd under the rostrum, and then at the representatives of all aspects on the rostrum. Although it is a clear sky, I vaguely feel the dark clouds turning and unpredictable. Finally, I secretly thought in my heart:After the national funeral, I must leave Beijing and go back to the countryside…”
The situation has changed rapidly.
On October 6, 1976, Hua Guofeng, Ye Jianying and others took drastic measures to smash the”Gang of Four” and put an end to the 10-year civil strife. ■
Written by Mang Donghong
This article is the original of”The Party History Expo”.
Reprint, excerpts, etc. are not allowed without permission.