Discrimination|Is the extension of the Anti-Japanese War for 14 years”in order to highlight the role of the Chinese Communist Party in the War of Resistance”? The purpose of this is to spread false statements and slander that the Chinese mainland sent troops to serve the Soviet Union. After the Russian archives were declassified in the 1990s, some people quoted historical materials in a one-sided and distorted manner, believing that China’s participation in the Korean War did not hesitate to damage Domestic interests contribute to other countries.
In recent years, there are still people who have spared no effort to deny the meaning of resisting U.S. aggression and aid to Korea, throwing out some historical materials that cannot withstand textual research, and even saying that even Mao Zedong himself regretted it and believed that”help North Korea It was wrong to fight this battle.”
To resist the US aggression and aid Korea, China undoubtedly paid a huge price for casualties and military expenditures. So, does Mao Zedong think he made the wrong decision? Did the Anti-US Aid Korea achieve his expected goal? How did he comment on the War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea?
The author sorts out and analyzes these issues based on relevant files and materials.
“Fight back to the 38th line and defend the third Eight lines”
According to Li Yinqiao, Mao’s guard chief, the news of the signing of the Korean armistice agreement reached Beijing on July 27, 1953, and Mao Zedong was very happy. A Peking opera was sung in the courtyard. Then he said to the guards around him:”We can take off the uniform, I take it off, and you take it off.” Taking off the uniform indicates that some of his inner worries and worries have been relieved and he is already thinking about the shift in national strategic focus.
Mao Zedong’s first systematic evaluation of the resistance to US aggression and aid to Korea was at the 24th meeting of the Central People’s Government Committee held on September 12, 1953. He pointed out:”The victory in the War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea is great and has a very important significance.” He mainly talked about four meanings, the first of which is”together with the Korean people, fight back to the 38th parallel and defend the third Eight lines”. He said:”If you don’t return to the 38th line, the front line is still on the Yalu River and Tumen River. People in Shenyang, Anshan, and Fushun will not be able to produce with peace of mind.”
The 38th Parallel was the “bottom” of Mao Zedong’s decision to send troops. Mao Zedong knew the great harm to China that the U.S. Army crossed the 38th parallel and occupied North Korea. In addition, there are deeper worries:Once North Korea collapses, according to Stalin’s opinion, North Korea will establish an exile government in Northeast China and Withdrawing the remaining troops to the Northeast for rest and reorganization, then it is very likely to draw the flames of war into China. Even if the Soviet Union sends troops to the Northeast again, regardless of victory or defeat in the war, it cannot guarantee that its sovereignty in the Northeast will not be damaged.
For Mao Zedong, the 38th line is also closely related to solving the Taiwan issue. The United States reacted very quickly and hard-line to the Korean War. It sent troops to North Korea and sent the Seventh Fleet to the Taiwan Strait at the same time. It was mainly worried that the same situation would occur in the Taiwan Strait, Vietnam, and Myanmar, leading to the collapse of the US Far East Defense Line. The United States links North Korea with Taiwan, and Mao Zedong cannot consider the two separately. On August 4, 1950, Mao Zedong said at the Politburo meeting of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China:If the US emperor wins, he will be proud and threaten our country.
The final signing of the North Korean armistice agreement. The Chinese and North Korean troops guarded the 38th line and pulled out a knife stuck in China, so that the Northeast and the whole country can be at ease Engaged in production and construction; avoided the possibility of confronting the aggressor on China’s land, and moved our”national defense line” outside; also gained some leeway in solving the Taiwan issue. Mao Zedong couldn’t help but feel gratified.
“Achieved military experience”
“Achieved military experience”, Mao Zedong said The second article mentioned in the meaning of the Anti-US Aid Korea. He said:“Our Chinese People’s Volunteers’ army, air force, navy, infantry, artillery, engineers, tanks, railways, air defenses, signal forces, as well as health forces, logistics forces, etc. have achieved actual combat against the American aggressor. Experience. This time, we touched the bottom of the U.S. military. For the U.S. military, if you don’t come into contact with it, you will be afraid of it. We have been fighting with it for thirty-three months and we are familiar with it.”
This passage of Mao Zedong contains two meanings:
The first is that our army has been modernized after resisting US aggression and aid Korea The goal has taken an important step.
Soon after the founding of New China, Mao Zedong and the Party Central Committee took modernization as the general policy and task of army building. However, the actual situation at the time was that”our army is far from modernization.” Because the domestic industry is extremely backward, there is no modern ordnance manufacturing capability, and weapons and equipment are poor. During the war, the Soviet Union assisted China’s 60 divisions with modern Soviet weapons at half price. We transferred the equipment of about 4 divisions to North Korea, and the remaining equipment was provided to the volunteers and domestic troops of 56 divisions. These troops quickly completed a major refurbishment. . After the change, the modernization level of our military’s weapons and equipment has been comprehensively improved. In addition, China’s major ordnance industries also successfully manufactured the first batch of domestically produced modern weapons and equipment using the technical blueprint provided by the Soviet Union, and the new China’s defense industry began to take shape.
Secondly, after the resistance to US aggression and aid to Korea, the various branches of the Chinese People’s Volunteers have gained experience in actual combat against modernly equipped enemies.
Mao Zedong believes that gaining experience in fighting a powerful United States is a major victory for the Chinese army. Mao Zedong once said:”The War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea is a big school”,”The most important thing is that our army has been tempered with courage and wisdom.” Thanks to the experience of fighting the US military, our military has overcome the past fear of the United States and has the courage to compete with powerful enemies. This is also reflected in Mao Zedong’s talk. On September 24, 1961, when Mao Zedong met with the British Marshal Montgomery, he said:”Our volunteers have fought the United States in North Korea for three years. The U.S. military is capable of combat and its weapons are good. However, as long as they don’t hit atomic or hydrogen bombs, We can deal with conventional weapons.”
“Improved the political consciousness of the people across the country”
In September 1953, Mao Zedong mentioned that the resistance to US aggression and aid to Korea had raised the political consciousness of the people throughout the country, but he did not elaborate. From his later conversation, it can be seen that there are three main meanings.
First, the resistance to US aggression and aid to Korea has greatly increased the prestige of the Chinese Communist Party among the people.
Before the resistance to US aggression and aid to Korea, leaders such as Mao Zedong were worried that the peace restoration plan would be disrupted, and”many people in China will be dissatisfied with us.” With the victory of the war, this fear ceased to exist. On March 17, 1957, Mao Zedong said at a meeting of party members and cadres in Tianjin:”In the past few decades, our main job has been class struggle. Down with Chiang Kai-shek, to resist U.S. aggression and aid Korea, land reform, and socialist transformation are all within the scope of class struggle.””When we were fighting this struggle, people didn’t believe us at the beginning. People now believe it. , Saying that the Communist Party has done it.”
The second is to promote the spirit of patriotism in the Korean War to Resist US Aid and Aid Korea, and inspire the people’s revolutionary enthusiasm and production enthusiasm.
As early as December 1950, Mao Zedong said to Eugene, the Soviet ambassador to China:”The US imperialist aggression in Korea is a very good thing for the Chinese people. Education. Within a few months, all the original forms of American imperialism have been exposed. The Chinese people have improved their understanding of American imperialism. The movement to resist U.S. aggression and aggression has been greatly developed.” As Mao Zedong said, the movement to resist U.S. aggression and aid Korea has maximized the entire country. The people are mobilized and thrown into the great struggle to support the front and restore the economy. After hard work, the restoration of the national economy was completed half a year ahead of schedule in the second half of 1952, and the first five-year plan for economic construction began in 1953.
The third is that the resistance to US aggression and aid to Korea invigorated the national spirit of the Chinese nation and eliminated the beauty and fear of some people.
The victory of the War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea broke the myth of the invincibility of the US military, and the Chinese people’s national self-confidence and pride has increased unprecedentedly. Mao Zedong was deeply moved, and often used this to encourage people at home and abroad to dare to fight imperialism and dare to fight all difficulties. In 1956, when he swam across the Yangtze River, he said:”People should be called to swim in the big rivers to exercise people’s will. Some people are afraid of big things. Isn’t the United States very big? We touched it once and nothing was great.”In November 1968, when Mao Zedong met with Vietnam’s Pham Van, he said:”In history, the United States has always allowed other countries to fight first, and then it fights halfway. It was only after World War II that the Korean War was fought first, and then Fighting the Vietnam War…but it couldn’t stand the fight, only a few hundred thousand soldiers, and limited strength.”
“Postponed the new imperialismWar of Aggression against China“
The fourth article Mao Zedong believes is the significance of the victory in the War of Resistance against US Aggression and Aid Korea is Postponed the imperialists’ new war of aggression against China and postponed the Third World War. Mao Zedong said:”In the future, the enemy may still fight, even if it does not fight, we must use various methods to make trouble.””If US imperialism does not postpone a new war of aggression, he said, I want to fight! We will use the first three. Deal with him. If he says, I won’t fight! Then we have Article 4. This also proves the superiority of our people’s democratic dictatorship.”
The victory of resisting U.S. aggression and aid to Korea has withstood the momentum of American aggression and expansion, won a precious peaceful environment for the new China’s nation-building and social reforms, and at the same time helped the new China The unprecedented increase in international prestige of China has made people all over the world, including China’s enemies and friends, look at New China with admiration. The Chinese people’s history of being arbitrarily bullied and slaughtered by imperialist powers for more than 100 years is gone.
As for the price paid in the war, Mao Zedong pointed out from the long-term interests of the Chinese people:“Of course, we sacrificed people, spent money, and paid the price. But we are Don’t be afraid of sacrifices, just do it and do it to the end.” He said:There are two so-called benevolent governance, one is for the immediate interests of the people, the other is for the long-term interests of the people, and the resistance to U.S. aggression belongs to the latter. Both must be taken into consideration, and the focus should be placed on benevolent politics.
Consolidate the Sino-Soviet alliance and obtain the economic assistance and security guarantees needed for the construction of New China
In his speech in September 1953, Mao Zedong did not mention the significance of the Anti-US Aid Korea in consolidating the Sino-Soviet alliance, but he has repeatedly expressed this meaning in his subsequent speeches. On July 21, 1958, Mao Zedong met with the Soviet ambassador to China, Eugene, and said:”When did the Soviets believe in the Chinese? It started from the Korean War. From that time, the two countries began to close together. There are only one hundred and fifty-six items.”
Before the Korean War, Mao Zedong fought several tenacious battles with Stalin in order to safeguard China’s national interests and national sovereignty. , Stalin did not have much trust in the Chinese Communist Party. If Mao Zedong goes against Stalin’s wishes and refuses to fight in North Korea, the Sino-Soviet alliance treaty signed before may become a piece of waste paper.
Mao Zedong finally made the decision to send troops to North Korea, which resolved the crisis of the Sino-Soviet alliance when it was just formed, and won the initiative for Soviet relations. The Soviet Union assisted in the construction of 156 projects, provided complex machinery and equipment, technological procedures, rich scientific and technological materials, provided other scientific intensive production methods, and sent a large number of experts. If there is no resistance to US aggression and aid to Korea, these are impossible.
More than 60 years have passed since the War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea. History has fully proved the correctness of Mao Zedong’s evaluation of the fight against US aid Korea. The victory of this war consolidated China’s northeastern frontier. From then on, US imperialism dared not attempt to bully and invade China lightly, and won a peaceful environment for my country’s economic construction and social reform for a long time.
(OF:Ying, a research based HISTORY Mao Thought New Democratic Revolution Party and the central portion literature Research Institute second Director, Editor)