Not long after the founding of New China, Mao Zedong put forward the strategic concept of constructing the Three Gorges Water Conservancy Project and managing the flooding of the Yangtze River, and described the grand blueprint of”cutting off the clouds and rain in Wushan, and the high gorge out of Pinghu”. Mao Zedong’s”Three Gorges Dream” failed to come true at the end of his life, but his Three Gorges complex was deeply rooted in his heart and laid a solid foundation for the subsequent successful construction of the Three Gorges Project.
“First fix thisHow about the Three Gorges Reservoir“ h1>
Mao Zedong’s attention to the Three Gorges began in the early 1950s.
February 16, 1953, the third day of the Lunar New Year. Mao Zedong braved the heavy snow and came to Wuhan by train. On February 19, Mao Zedong, after investigating the site selection for the construction of the Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge, boarded the Navy’s”Yangtze River” ship from the Wuhan Customs Wharf and began to set off downstream to Nanjing. Mao Zedong specially”point general” Lin Yishan accompanied.
In the 1930s, Lin Yishan, who studied in the Geography Department of Beiping Normal University, joined the revolution and worked as secretary of the Liaonan Provincial Party Committee. After the founding of New China, he served as the Yangtze River Water Conservancy The director of the committee, engaged in water conservancy work on the Yangtze River, was hailed as the”King of the Yangtze River” by Mao Zedong.
The section of the Yangtze River from Zhicheng in Hubei to Chenglingji in Hunan is called Jingjiang, which is known as the”tofu waist” of the Yangtze River Basin. During the flood season, the water level of the Yangtze River is often higher than the dike More than 10 meters, the embankment burst, more than 10 meters of water poured down, countless lives and property were swallowed by the flood, there is a saying:The Yangtze River is 10,000 miles long, and the dangerous section is in the Jingjiang River. In October 1950, Lin Yishan proposed a plan to build the Jingjiang flood diversion project. Mao Zedong personally reviewed the design documents and approved the immediate construction of the project. On April 5, 1952, the Jingjiang flood diversion project was fully started. Mao Zedong wrote an inscription:”For the benefit of the people, strive for the victory of the Jingjiang flood diversion project!” 300,000 soldiers and civilians fought hard. The project originally planned to be completed in 100 days was completed in 75 days.
Standing on the deck of the”Yangtze River”, Mao Zedong looked at the surging eastward river and said to Lin Yishan:”The Yangtze River is the largest river of our Chinese nation. Good or bad tempers have a great bearing on the interests of the country and the whole people. You must not be careless!”
On the way, Mao Zedong and Lin Yishan discussed the Yangtze River Basin Planning and the South-to-North Water Diversion We had extensive conversations on other issues. He asked Lin Yishan, how can we solve the disaster of the Yangtze River flood? How can we benefit and eliminate harm?
◆In 1952, Mao Zedong listened to Lin Yishan’s report on the Yangtze River.
Lin Yishan launched the”Draft Plan for Comprehensive Utilization of Water Resources in the Yangtze River Basin” and reported on the preliminary plan for flood control of the Yangtze River. He pointed to the large and small reservoirs on the map and said that the plan A series of cascade reservoirs will be gradually built on the main stream of the Yangtze River and its main tributaries to intercept floods, make comprehensive utilization, and fundamentally eliminate flood threats.
Mao Zedong’s eyes moved slowly on the plan, from the source of the Yangtze River, Jinsha River, Dadu River, Minjiang River, Jialing River, Wujiang River, Xiangjiang River, Hanjiang River, and Jiangxi Province on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Yangtze River until Wusongkou where the Yangtze River enters the sea, and then I used a red pencil to point at the exit of the Three Gorges and asked:”You have built so many reservoirs upstream, can you reach the Three Gorges?”
Lin Yishan replied affirmatively:“They all add up to the role of a reservoir in the Three Gorges.”
Mao Zedong asked again:“Then why not in this general I got stuck in the hole and finished the work? How about repairing the Three Gorges Reservoir first?” He stared into the distance and said,”Mr. Sun Yat-sen mentioned the construction of the Three Gorges Project in his”Strategy for the Founding of the Country”. My old rival Chiang Kai-shek also I asked the Americans to help build the Three Gorges, but he didn’t really want to build the Three Gorges. All his thoughts were spent on how to eat me Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communists. Therefore, he is doomed to fail.”
Although Mao Zedong believed that the Three Gorges Project had an irreplaceable main role in eradicating the floods of the Yangtze River, he only proposed the concept of the Three Gorges Project at that time, and had no intention of immediate implementation. He asked Lin Yishan to study the Three Gorges Project carefully after he returned, and specifically asked him not to talk to the outside world, and to report to him first if there were results.
Mao Zedong placed great expectations on Lin Yishan:”China is a big agricultural country, agriculture is the foundation of the national economy, and water conservancy is the lifeblood of agriculture. Only water conservancy is well done. Only agriculture can develop in the long term. Only when agriculture develops can industry be better supported. The burden on your shoulders is not light!”
After Lin Yishan returned to Han, immediately organize personnel to respond The Three Gorges project was surveyed and the dam site was selected. In the”Report on the Basic Plan of the River Governance Plan,” the preliminary idea of the Three Gorges Dam site being selected at Huangling Temple, Sandouping and Maoping was proposed.
“The Three Gorges Project must be included in the plan”
In the summer of 1954, the Yangtze River Basin It was a rare flood disaster in a century. Although the Jingjiang flood diversion project played an important role, the disaster was still serious. 123 counties in the five provinces in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River were affected, inundated 48 million mu of farmland and more than 18 million victims. The Beijing-Guangzhou Railway cannot be opened to traffic for 100 days.
The catastrophe caused Mao Zedong’s serious anxiety. Looking at the southern country, he stood there for a long time, firming up his determination to build the Three Gorges Reservoir and fundamentally control the flooding of the Yangtze River. He planned to bring the construction of the Three Gorges Project to the agenda of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee.
In mid-November 1954, the central government held a working meeting in Guangzhou to discuss the draft of the country’s first five-year plan. Mao Zedong said that the Three Gorges Project should be included in the plan, but according to my country’s current material and financial resources, it cannot be included in the five-year plan, but can only be included in the long-term plan. He also said to a young cadre present, that I will die in the future. After the completion of the Three Gorges Dam, you write a memorial text and tell I. This shows that Mao Zedong has determined to formally carry out the planning of the Yangtze River Basin and build the Three Gorges Dam when conditions are ripe.
On November 26, Mao Zedong’s special train arrived at Hankou Station on the way back to Beijing. Lin Yishan boarded the train according to the notice and reported the problems of the Three Gorges Project on the Yangtze River. Liu Shaoqi and Zhou Enlai were present. As the special train continued to go north, Mao Zedong asked Lin Yishan about the preliminary research on the construction of the Three Gorges Dam.
Because of Mao Zedong’s attention, since 1955, the State Council has organized relevant departments to work together to comprehensively carry out the Yangtze River Basin Planning and the Three Gorges Project survey, scientific research, design and demonstration work. In order to strengthen the technical strength of the Three Gorges Project research, Mao Zedong personally discussed with Khrushchev to send Soviet experts to China to assist in the planning and design of the Yangtze River Basin.
◆Chairman Mao Zedong’s”Swimming with Shui Tune Song Tou”:”Improve the cliffs of the Xijiang River, cut off the clouds and rain in Wushan, and the high gorge out of Pinghu”, he is fascinated and passionate about the beauty of the future Three Gorges Project.
In June 1955, the first batch of Soviet experts arrived in Wuhan. After on-site surveys, Soviet experts focused on the benefits of power generation and advocated that the dam site should be selected at Maoerxia, 40 kilometers upstream of Chongqing. This is far from the flood control benefits that Mao Zedong envisioned. In December, Zhou Enlai personally came forward to do the work of Soviet experts. He pointed out that flood control of the Yangtze River is urgent and important. The upstream hub cannot control floods. The Three Gorges hub has a unique role of”regulating storage on the upper side and compensating for the lower side”. It is the main body of the Yangtze River Basin planning. . The Soviet experts were sincerely convinced and agreed with the Chinese side. They played a significant role in the preparation of the Yangtze River Basin plan, the design of the Three Gorges Project, and the construction of professional teams.
Mao Zedong was very pleased after hearing the news.
On May 31, 1956, Mao Zedong flew from Changsha to Wuhan by plane. After inspecting the construction site of Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge by boat, he traveled along the Yangtze River with great interest. Looking far into the sky, thinking of the Three Gorges in the distance, the grand plan is in my chest. In the Donghu Hotel where he stayed, the grand blueprint for the treatment of the Yangtze River and the construction of the Three Gorges Dam was unfolded under his giant pen like a rafter:
Let the stone wall of the Xijiang River be more established,
Truncate Wushan Yunyu,
Go out of Pinghu from Gaoxia.
The goddess should be innocent,
Be shocked by the world.
This is not only a romantic fantasy of the poet, but also the affirmative conclusion of this great man on the construction of the Three Gorges Dam.
“Let them both talk at the meeting”
For the construction of the Three Gorges For the dam project, Mao Zedong always adhered to the spirit of being scientific and realistic, yearning and being cautious.
In January 1958, during the Nanning Conference, Mao Zedong specially arranged a few days to study the Three Gorges Project. He proposed to bring Lin Yishan over to give a comprehensive introduction to the Three Gorges Project. Bo Yibo, Vice Premier of the State Council, suggested that Li Rui of the Ministry of Electric Power had different opinions, and Lin and Li had expressed their opinions in professional journals. Controversial articles, the argument is fierce, should he also come? Mao Zedong immediately stated:”Okay, invite them all and let them both have a talk at the meeting.”
So, a plane was carrying Li Rui, director of the Hydropower Administration of the Ministry of Electric Power, set off from Beijing and took Lin Yishan with him while staying in Wuhan and flew directly to Nanning.
In the meeting room, everyone sits around the table. Lin Yishan and Li Rui, representatives of two different opinions on the construction of the Three Gorges Project, were arranged to sit directly opposite Mao Zedong. Mao Zedong asked them to express their opinions and open the conversation. First, he asked Lin Yishan:”How much time do you want to talk?” Lin Yishan replied:”It will take two hours.” Then he asked Li Rui,”How many hours do you want?” Li Rui said,”I only need half of it. Hours.”
Lin Yishan speaks first. Starting from the flood disasters of the Yangtze River, he emphasized the key role of the Three Gorges Project in solving flood control, and listed the huge benefits of the Three Gorges Project in flood control, power generation, and shipping, and then estimated and analyzed the total investment of the Three Gorges Project.
Li Rui put it succinctly. He believes that the construction of the Three Gorges Reservoir involves resettlement issues. For example, the height of the dam is 200 meters. It is estimated that at least 1.05 million people will be resettled, which is extremely difficult; Flood prevention can protect the Jingjiang levee, but it has a small effect on Wuhan; the main thing is to build a large hydropower station, but in 1957 the national power generation was 19 billion kWh, while the Three Gorges is a large power station that can generate 100 billion kWh. This is needed only a year later; there is also the issue of national defense, which may become a key target of enemy attacks.
After the two people finished speaking, Mao Zedong said:”It doesn’t count if you have said it. You write an article each and hand in your papers in three days. Come to the Sanxia on the third night. Yes.”
On the third night, the meeting was still in place. Lin Yishan’s articles are eloquent with more than 20,000 words, and Li Rui’s articles are 8,000 words. The participants have read the article and made short speeches.
After listening to everyone’s opinions, Mao Zedong said:“With regard to the Three Gorges issue, the central government has not made an immediate decision to build the Three Gorges. I am still interested in the Three Gorges.” While affirming the construction of the Three Gorges Project, it has fully absorbed the reasonable parts of the objections. It is proposed that the construction of the Three Gorges Project should adhere to the policy of”active preparation and full reliability”, advocated”less installation, less investment, and first repair of dams to prevent floods.” The Yangtze River’s hydropower generation ranked second.
◆In 1958, Zhou Enlai led more than 100 officials and scientific and technological experts to survey the Three Gorges of the Yangtze River.
Mao Zedong turned and said to Zhou En:”The Three Gorges problem, you can take care of it!” Zhou Enlaiqian said:”For such a big matter, I still ask the chairman. Take care.” Mao Zedong:”I am so busy, how can I have so much time to take care of it? It’s up to you to take care of it.” He stretched out four fingers and said,”Catch four times a year.”
Soon after the Nanning meeting, from February 26 to March 5, Zhou Enlai led more than 100 officials and scientific and technological experts to investigate the Three Gorges of the Yangtze River and discuss the Three Gorges Project problem. The two Vice Premier Li Fuchun and Li Xiannian accompanied him. After investigating the Nanjinguan dam site, on the afternoon of March 1, arrived at Sandouping dam site by boat, Zhou Enlai and his party went to Zhongbao IslandOn site survey, he picked up a section of the geological drilling core and watched repeatedly, and said:”Bring a section of the core to Chairman Mao to see.”
March On the 3rd, Zhou Enlai chaired a discussion on board the ship. The topic was:whether to build the Three Gorges Dam, whether to build the Three Gorges Dam, and whether to strive to build this project in advance. Lin Yishan and Li Rui once again put forth their respective propositions. Zhou Enlai asked Qian Zhengying, vice minister of water resources and water conservancy and hydropower expert, to talk about it. Qian Zhengying supported the construction of the Three Gorges Project. Zhou Enlai attaches great importance to different opinions. He pointed out:“As long as the argument does not hinder the work and is beneficial to the work, encouragement should be promoted; the Three Gorges project is a millennium plan and only develops one side of the problem. It is easy to go to the opposite side and do better for the Three Gorges. It can still be argued.””In the future work, objections are allowed. This is the superiority of our socialism.”
“I want to take a boat Walk along the Yangtze River and see the Three Gorges”
On March 8, 1958, the Central Committee held a meeting in Chengdu. In his speech, Mao Zedong talked about the construction of the Three Gorges Project and suggested that”the Three Gorges issue should be solved here.” Zhou Enlai gave a report on the planning of the Three Gorges Project and the Yangtze River Basin. When Mao Zedong reviewed Zhou Enlai’s report, he added a sentence to the first item:”Considering the country’s long-term economic development and technical conditions, the Three Gorges Project needs to be built and may be built.” It is also in the fifth item. In order to correctly handle the six relationships in the planning of the Yangtze River Basin, a relationship between “generation and consumption (that is, there is a market)” is added.
On April 5, the Politburo meeting of the Central Committee approved Zhou Enlai’s report and passed the”Opinions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on the Planning of the Three Gorges Project and the Yangtze River Basin”. The central government’s first “red-head document” on the Three Gorges Project clearly stated:“Considering the country’s long-term economic development and technical conditions, the Three Gorges Project needs to be built and may be built; When to start construction, a decision can only be made after all important aspects of the preparatory work are basically completed. It is estimated that the entire survey, design, and construction of the Three Gorges Project will take about 15 to 20 years. Active preparations and fully reliable measures should be taken now. Policy and carry out various related tasks.”
At this Chengdu meeting, some resolutions were more or less affected by the”Great Leap Forward” thought, but” The Opinions on the Three Gorges Project and Water Conservancy Planning of the Yangtze River Basin is an exception. It was because Mao Zedong insisted on acting in accordance with scientific laws on the issue of the Three Gorges Project, earnestly investigated and studied, and extensively listened to the opinions of experts from various fields, so that the opinions on the Three Gorges Project reflected a strict scientific spirit.
◆This is March 1958. Mao Zedong took the”Jiangxia” ship from Chongqing to Wuhan to watch the materials introducing the Three Gorges.
After the Chengdu meeting, Mao Zedong made it clear:”I want to take a boat across the Yangtze River to see the Three Gorges.” In the early morning of March 29, 1958, Mao Zedong Take the”Jiangxia” wheel from Chongqing to the east. In the afternoon, the”Jiangxia” ship called at Wanxian Port.
On March 30, the”Jiangxia” ship sailed to the Three Gorges by wind and waves. When the”Jiang Gorge” ship entered the Xiling Gorge, which was full of shoals and floods, Mao Zedong stood in the driver’s cab and looked forward, and said to the crew beside him:”Some waterways are still not good. Build a large sluice in the Three Gorges to prevent floods, and It is convenient for shipping and can also generate electricity. Do you agree or disagree?” The crew happily replied:”Too much! After repairing the sluice, navigation will be more convenient.”
On the ship, Mao Zedong asked Ren Baige, the first secretary of the Chongqing Municipal Party Committee, and Yan Hanmin, the secretary of the Wanxian Prefectural Party Committee, about the construction of the Three Gorges Dam:”You are all parents of the Three Gorges area. You need to build a dam in the Three Gorges to prevent floods and generate electricity. You also raise fish, okay?”
Ren and Yan both said that it’s good. If the dam is really built, there will be more land flooded. A little bit. Yan Hanmin even expressed his doubts, “How to resettle a large number of immigrants after flooding a large area of land is a big problem!” Because he has a deep understanding of this issue in his actual work. A few years ago, the Shizitan Hydropower Station in Changshou County, Chongqing City was built and migrated to Liangping County, Wanxian Prefecture, leaving behind various problems in production and life, which have still not been resolved.
Mao Zedong was lost in thought. He seems to have considered this issue very far and far, and then solemnly said:”Yes! Letting nearly a million people move out of their homes, this is a generation of heavy dedication to the construction of the country. A large number of immigrants have to produce and dress. To eat, their children must be educated. These things must be properly arranged in the future.”
The”Jiangxia” ship sailed through the flooded Xiling Gorge. After Xintan, Xietan and Kongling Beach, the surface of the river suddenly opened up, and a small green island suddenly appeared on the river. It is the Zhongbao Island that is proposed to be the site of the Three Gorges Project. The”Jiangxia” wheel approached Zhongbao Island and turned around and settled in the heart of the river. Mao Zedong walked to the side of the ship and raised his binoculars to observe this magical island from different angles for a long time. Although it is almost evening, the entire island is still clearly visible in the telescope. This boat-shaped island divides the Yangtze River in two:the small river is in the south and is about 200 meters wide; the big river is in the north and is about 700-800 meters wide. He put down the binoculars and listened carefully to the introductions of experts around him.
◆On March 30, 1958, Mao Zedong inspected the Three Gorges by boat.
Lin Yishan said:“In the future, the central axis of the Three Gorges Dam will cross this small island. This will be the Three Gorges Water Control Project. Mao Zedong nodded with satisfaction and continued to listen to other experts’ introduction,”The Three Gorges Dam on Zhongbao Island is the implementation of our proposed Meirentuo dam project.”
This is a Chinese expert’s revision of the Nanjin Pass dam construction plan proposed by the American expert Savage in 1944 and recognized by Soviet experts not long ago. Premier Zhou personally inspected Nanjin Pass and affirmed the opinions of Chinese experts. Nanjin Pass is a karst. Limestone area is a big taboo for building large dams, and Sandouping is made of granite, justify building a large dam.”
Mao Zedong nodded frequently and praised Chinese experts for their aspirations.
The expert went on to say:“Building a large dam on Zhongbao Island has natural advantages. It can take advantage of the favorable geographical conditions of the large and small rivers. The construction will be carried out in two phases. There is no need to build another spillway.”
Mao Zedong was more happy to hear it. He witnessed the unique geological and landform conditions of Zhongbao Island, which increased his confidence in the construction of the Three Gorges Dam. He clenched the big hand into a fist and decisively thumped it on the railing of the ship’s side, as if it was a final word:Zhongbao Island is the ideal place to realize”cut off the clouds and rain in Wushan, and the high gorge out of Pinghu”.
“Agree to build this dam”
Mao Zedong’s consideration of the Three Gorges Project is gradually deepening. Some key issues always linger in his mind:one is whether the national strength can afford such a large investment; the second is how to solve the problem of sedimentation; the third is how to solve the problem of air defense, especially against atomic bombs. In short, to build the Three Gorges Project, the benefits must be maximized and the drawbacks must be minimized. Therefore, after the policy of”active preparation and full reliability” for the construction of the Three Gorges Project, he added four more words:”pros and cons.”
How to maximize”pros and cons”? Relevant departments have conducted repeated research and demonstrations on the Three Gorges Project. The length of time, the number of experts involved, and the wide range of issues involved are only seen in large-scale construction projects in New China. Mao Zedong also personally arranged research on major issues involving the Three Gorges Project. He personally approved the construction of a test dam for the Three Gorges Project on Lushui in Puqi, Hubei (now Chibi), to conduct tests for the design and operation of large-scale water conservancy and hydropower projects in my country, to study the problem of sedimentation in large reservoirs, and to provide a theory for the extension of the Three Gorges Dam’s service life And technical support. A chemical explosion simulation test was conducted in the Guanting Reservoir in Beijing, and a nuclear explosion simulation test was conducted at the Xinjiang Nuclear Experimental Base. The most bomb-resistant dam design was adopted to prevent the Three Gorges Dam from becoming a weakness in national defense security.
The Three Gorges Project has been”actively preparing”, has been arguing, and has been moving forward in the debate. In March 1966, Lin Yishan wrote a report on the construction of the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River to the Party Central Committee and Mao Zedong. The report said:”The planning of the Yangtze River and the study of the Three Gorges Project were carried out in accordance with the policy of’proactive preparation, full reliability’ and’pros and cons’ directed by the chairman. In recent years, according to the chairman’s instructions, we have focused on building protection , Reservoir siltation and phased construction, and further realized that phased construction is more in line with the policy of”pros and cons”, which greatly increases the possibility of the construction of the Three Gorges Project in the near future. According to the current national economic development, the Three Gorges Project should be early or inappropriate Lately, it is recommended that the central government list this project as a construction project during the third and fourth five-year plans.”
Mao Zedong’s instructions after reading:”Already read . A negative report is needed.” He is not opposed to the construction of the Three Gorges Dam, but he believes that the decision-making of such a major project needs to be particularly cautious and pay attention to different voices to avoid making mistakes.
In 1969, the Ministry of Water Resources and Electric Power proposed to the central government to build the Three Gorges Project. Because of the border conflict between China and the Soviet Union this spring, Mao Zedong believed that it was necessary to prepare for war and made a clear statement:It is not appropriate to think about this during the current preparations for war.” In October, Zhang Tixue, deputy director of the Hubei Provincial Revolutionary Committee (former governor), stated to Mao Zedong who was inspecting in Hubei:In order to alleviate the tension of the Jingjiang flood and improve the three-line power supply and the Chuanjiang shipping situation, he requested Construction of the Three Gorges Project. Mao Zedong said earnestly and humorously:”Now you are going to prepare for war, and you have 20 billion cubic meters of water on your brain. Are you afraid?”
In this case, Wuhan The Military Region, Hubei Province, and the Ministry of Water and Power put forward proposals to the central government to repair the Gezhouba Water Control Project, which is part of the Three Gorges Project. But Lin Yishan opposed the launch of the Gezhouba project. In November, the Central Political Bureau meeting approved in principle the proposals of the Wuhan Military Region, Hubei Province, and the Ministry of Water and Power. Zhou Enlai submitted the Central Authorities’ draft and Lin’s written opinions to Mao Zedong. Mao Zedong believed that the first step to build the Gezhouba project can be a test and exploration for the preparation of the Three Gorges Project, which can lay the foundation for the Three Gorges Project.
◆In May 1979, Lin Yishan (fourth from left) and representatives of the meeting made a field trip to the Three Gorges when presided over the dam selection meeting of the Three Gorges Project in Wuchang.
On December 26, 1970, Mao Zedong issued instructions on his 77th birthday:”I agree to the construction of this dam. The current document assumes that In the process of construction, we will encounter some difficult problems that we can’t think of now. That is another thing. At that time, we must prepare to modify the design.”
Mao Zedong’s instructions On the 4th day after the release, on December 30, 1970, the Gezhouba project was hurriedly launched before the design was completed. Tens of thousands of builders shouted”Survey, design, and construction” and”10,000 people The slogan of”design, tens of thousands of people review” entered the construction site. The Gezhouba project was code-named”Project 330″ to commemorate Mao Zedong’s inspection of the Three Gorges on March 30, 1958.
Due to insufficient preparations, the progress of the project became more and more passive. Serious construction quality accidents and traffic jams on the main channel of the Yangtze River occurred. In November 1972, the State Council stopped the Gezhouba project. According to Mao Zedong’s instructions, the Gezhouba Engineering Technical Committee headed by Lin Yishan was established, responsible for formulating design plans and solving various technical problems in construction. Zhou Enlai said to Lin Yishan:”First, build the Gezhou Dam as an experiment to prepare for actual combat in the Three Gorges. The problems that arise here will also appear in the Three Gorges. The greatest success will be the completion of the Gezhou Dam.”
Lin Yishan organized the top talents and well-known dam experts in China’s water conservancy industry to go all out to”modify the design”. In two years, he came up with the technical design that usually takes 5 to 6 years to complete. The complex technical problems that existed in the Gezhouba project were solved, and the project finally officially resumed in October 1974. In January 1981, the Yangtze River was cut off. In the same year, Unit 1 was connected to the grid for power generation and was successfully completed in 1990.
The construction of the Gezhouba Project has not only accumulated a lot of valuable experience and technical data for the Three Gorges Project, but also created a well-trained dam engineering technical team.
“High Gorge Out of Pinghu”
The Three Gorges Project that Mao Zedong was dreaming about , Finally put into practice after the reform and opening up.
On April 3, 1992, the Fifth Session of the Seventh National People’s Congress voted on the”Resolution on the Construction of the Yangtze River Three Gorges Project.” This is the first time that the National People’s Congress has voted on a key project. The result of the voting was 1767 votes in favor, 177 votes against, and 664 abstentions. 25 people did not press the voting machine and the resolution was passed.
In 1993, the Three Gorges Construction Committee of the State Council was established, with Premier Li Peng serving as the director. On July 26, 1993, the second meeting of the Three Gorges Construction Committee of the State Council reviewed and approved the preliminary design report of the Three Gorges Project on the Yangtze River, marking that the construction of the Three Gorges Project has entered the formal construction preparation stage.
On December 14, 1994, the groundbreaking ceremony of the Three Gorges Project on the Yangtze River was held at Sandouping, the site of the Three Gorges Dam. Li Peng announced that the Three Gorges Project had officially started. Mao Zedong’s dream of the Three Gorges opened the curtain of becoming a reality on the Zhongbao Island in the Three Gorges that he had personally paid attention to.
◆On December 14, 1994, the groundbreaking ceremony of the Three Gorges Project on the Yangtze River was held in Sandouping, Yichang City, Hubei Province, the site of the Three Gorges Dam.
From 4 a.m. on May 19, 2006, the Three Gorges Dam started the final concrete pouring, and the pouring was completed on the afternoon of the 20th. So far, The Three Gorges Dam, which is 2309 meters long and 185 meters above sea level, locks the endless water of the Yangtze River. This marks the completion of the Three Gorges Dam, the core building of the Three Gorges Project, and is a milestone event in the construction of the Three Gorges Project.
Nowadays, the cliffs of the Xijiang River stand tall, the Wushan cloud and rain are cut off, the Gaoxia Pinghu appears, the goddess is innocent, the people are well-being, and Mao Zedong’s great dream of”Going out of the Pinghu” has become reality.
Unfortunately, Mao Zedong was unable to see the spectacular scene of”High Gorge Out of Pinghu” in his lifetime, but he had been worrying about the Three Gorges Project for a long time. The brilliance created is enough to comfort the great man:
In terms of flood control, the Three Gorges Project suffered three major floods in 2010, 2012, and 2016, and the peak discharge exceeded the 1998 flood. The maximum peak flow rate. The Three Gorges Project has successfully performed the function of blocking floods and reducing peaks, thereby effectively alleviating the pressure on flood control in the middle and lower reaches of the river and ensuring the smooth flow of the Yangtze River.
In terms of power generation, the Three Gorges Power Station generated 97.6 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity in 2017, surpassing the Itaipu Hydropower Station jointly owned by Brazil and Paraguay, creating a global single hydropower station’s annual power generation The most amount.
Other aspects, such as environmental impact, are within a controllable range. In 2011, the policy director of the International Rivers Organization, Bai Haode, wrote in the Huffington Post in the United States:“Dujiangyan reflects China’s Taoist philosophy of conforming to nature, and the dam on the Yangtze River is a symbol of Maoism’s conquest of nature. The Three Gorges The dam is regarded as a model for the construction of global dams.”
This article is the original”Party History Boca”
Not allowed without permission Reprinted
Infringement must be investigated
Rights protection support:Hebei Jineng Law Firm