58 years ago, in the southwestern frontier of the motherland, there was a time when there was a lot of smoke and noise. The Indian government ignored the traditional friendship between the Chinese and Indian peoples and brazenly provoked a large-scale war that eroded Chinese territory. The Chinese government was forced to conduct a short and limited counterattack in self-defense, winning the troops. Since then, the southwest frontier has remained relatively stable for decades. At that time, Mao Zedong personally participated in this counterattack in China’s highest command. When the fighting smoke gradually dissipated and the frontier calmed down, Mao Zedong looked back on the battle and said with emotion:”This time I participated. The prime minister, Comrade Shaoqi, Comrade Xiaoping, and comrades of the Military Commission, we all participated. We are in Beijing. , It’s not like going to the front line.”
■Mao Zedong said to Nehru:”My friends Sometimes there are disagreements and sometimes quarrels, but this kind of quarrel is qualitatively different from our quarrel with Dulles.” The leaders of China and the Soviet Union murmured during the meeting. Facing Khrushchev’s favoritism, Mao Zedong looked serious, but his tone was tactful
There is always a process in everything. The Sino-Indian border conflict is not a day or two.
As early as the founding of the People’s Republic of China, even in the most friendly years of Sino-Indian relations, the Indian side had some unfriendly actions. In 1951, when the Indian side took advantage of China to resist the US and aid Korea, it seized 90,000 square kilometers of Chinese territory south of the”McMahon Line” in the eastern section of the Sino-Indian border, and then occupied part of the Chinese territory in the middle section of the border. After learning of the news, out of consideration of the traditional friendship and fundamental interests of China and India, Mao Zedong has always exercised restraint and tolerance towards India’s provocation and trouble. In October 1954, Prime Minister Nehru was invited to visit China and was grandly received by the Chinese government. When Mao Zedong talked about China-India friendship with Nehru, he also talked about the differences between the two countries. He said in person:”Sometimes there are differences between friends, sometimes they quarrel, and even quarrel with red ears, but this kind of quarrel is similar to us and Du. Luss’s quarrel is different in nature… China and India signed an agreement on the Tibet issue, which helps eliminate the factors that cause suspicion and hinder cooperation. We jointly announced the five principles, which is also very good.”
Mao Zedong was very aware of the situation facing China at that time.”China will not be so stupid. The East will make enemies against the United States, and the West will make enemies against India. We cannot have two priorities. We cannot treat our friends as enemies. This is our national policy. Over the past few years, especially in the last two or three months, we The quarrel between the two countries is nothing more than an episode in the millennia of friendship between the two countries.” This paragraph he wrote in his own handwriting was conveyed to the Indian side through the Chinese ambassador to India Pan Zili in May 1959. It is tantamount to handing over the”bottom” to India, and the purpose is one. We hope that the Indian side will respect itself and coexist peacefully.
However, the Indian authorities turned a deaf ear to good words, and after a short silence, they began a new round of encroaching on Chinese territory. On August 25, 1959, the first armed conflict between the two armies took place in Longjou, on the eastern section of the Sino-Indian border. In October, India again provoked the Kazan conflict in the western sector.
Mao Zedong, who has always regarded territory as flesh and blood, could no longer remain silent. Although Sino-Soviet relations have deteriorated, he is still willing to report the situation to them objectively in order to get their understanding.
On October 2, the leaders of China and the Soviet Union held a formal meeting at the Yi Nian Hall in Zhongnanhai. The Chinese attended Mao Zedong, Liu Shaoqi, Zhou Enlai, Zhu De, Chen Yi, Peng Zhen and others. In addition to Khrushchev, Suslov, Gromyko, Ponomarev and Andropov participated in the talks. The central topic of the talks is the issue of the Sino-Indian border conflict.
Khrushchev is still an overlord. He seemed to say fairly:”You China should have a good relationship with India. India is a neutral country. Nehru is more enlightened and should unite with him. It is wrong to have a military conflict on the border between China and India. It is wrong to start a war due to a territorial dispute. It’s not worth it.”
Chen Yi, who was later falsely called by Khrushchev as”a tiger released by the CCP,” first stood up and retorted:”How can you say that? It is clearly Indian provoked. This conflict. The Indian Army crossed its border and also crossed the’McMahon Line’, establishing a post inside the Chinese border to defend China’s border The army fired.”
Zhou Enlai also added politely:”The Indian side only fired back 6 hours after shooting. How can we say that China provoked it?”
Chen Yi went on to point out:”The”TASS Statement” you issued on September 9 favored India and accused China.” Khrushchev denied:”We don’t know the situation at all. India says you People who killed them.”
Chen Yi said:”We greeted you on September 6, you should know about this. On September 8, you told us that you plan to publish the”TASS Statement””, we advise you to slow down, and tell you that our Chinese side will also publish a document, please read our document before expressing your position. Take a step back and say, even if you don’t understand the situation as you said, then you should also Be more cautious and wait until the situation is clarified. However, you did not listen to our greetings at all, and hurriedly published your”TASS Statement” first. Why is this?”
The atmosphere suddenly became tense. Khrushchev flushed, and gesticulated:”Although I don’t know your situation, a soldier in India was killed and another soldier was injured. This proves that you are not right.”
Chen Yi’s eyes widened and he was furious:”You and I are both people who have fought in wars. It doesn’t mean whoever has been killed or injured is right. Don’t you understand this truth?”
“No matter what, It was you who killed the people first. It was wrong for you to ruin your relationship with India. Besides, the land you fought for was on the sparsely populated mountains of Tibet. It is really worth the bloodshed for such small desolate highlands. These years you have passed without fighting. This boundary was determined decades ago. Why have you waited until now to make a fuss about it?…Isn’t the barren hills where there is no grass just letting it go to India? You should To be more tolerant, you should understand Nehru’s situation.” Khrushchev got more and more excited when he spoke. Sometimes he stood up and said unreasonably,”Tibet happens to be on the border of India. Don’t you understand? The Indians think there is Is an independent neighbor important? Tibet is a very weak place and cannot pose any threat to India by itself, but a Tibet belonging to China will pose a threat to India. Don’t you understand this?”
These words greatly hurt the Chinese leaders. Zhou En said:”That can’t be said. We will not occupy an inch of land or let others occupy our land. We must not do things that lose power and humiliate the country.” He repeatedly emphasized,”China has always adopted a policy of unity with India. But for what is unreasonable to it, and for its violation of international conventions, it must be opposed and struggled. The purpose of the struggle is to unite it and not just to accommodate it.”
Chen Yi went on to say. ,”TASS Statement” is accommodationism.
Khrushchev became more excited, pointing to Chen Yi and shouting:”How am I accommodationism? You are adventurism and narrow nationalism!”
This again caused Chen Yi Refutes by Peng Zhen and others…
In the whole argument, Mao Zedong remained silent. He hated Khrushchev’s actions and knew that everything was”playing the piano against the cow.” Towards the end of the meeting, he restrained and said:”This issue still needs to be clarified. We can’t manage other matters. We hope that Soviet comrades can listen to China’s opinions and understand the situation. It is better to greet China in advance, discuss with China, and then publicly express our attitude to the outside world. To Nehru, we should still be friendly with him or unite with him. Our principle is:people don’t offend me, I don’t offend others. , If anyone offends me, I will offend others; not the world first. But whoever wants to bully us is no good. No one will do.” Mao Zedong said with a stern look, but his tone was tactful.
Khrushchev heard this and sighed:”In this case, there is nothing to talk about.”
The meeting broke up unhappy. Two days later, Khrushchev and his party set off to return home.
After Khrushchev returned to Vladivostok from Beijing, he gave a speech on October 6, insinuating and attacking China without naming:”It is irrational to be as keen on war as a rooster is combative.”After returning to Moscow, he gave a speech at the Supreme Soviet Conference on October 31. He once again attacked China without name as”adventurism” and”Trotskyism without war or peace.” This shows that Khrushchev’s attitude towards China and India has not changed.
■In order to avoid border conflicts, China unilaterally withdrew 20 kilometers from the border. The Indian side believes that China is weak and can be bullied, and has accelerated the pace of armed invasion of China. After several trade-offs, the Chinese government finally made up its determination
In November 1959, the decision-making meeting of the highest level of the Chinese government was held in Hangzhou. Attending this meeting were Mao Zedong, Liu Shaoqi, Zhou Enlai, Peng Zhen, Hu Qiaomu and others. The main issue discussed is how to avoid border conflicts between China and India. At the meeting, Lei Yingfu of the General Staff Headquarters reported on the bloody incidents that have occurred on the Sino-Indian border for a period of time. He also explained that our commanders and fighters on the Sino-Indian border have reached the point of anger. Then, he submitted several measures to avoid the Sino-Indian border conflict, which were jointly studied by the General Staff and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, such as not allowing the first shot, not returning the fire, and so on. Mao Zedong listened to the report with a solemn expression and kept smoking.
When Lei Yingfu talked about the difficulties of some troops in avoiding conflicts and the requirements of front-line commanders, Mao Zedong extinguished the cigarette butts and interjected:”Some of our comrades have fought for decades, but they are not Understand the basic truth:the border soldiers of the two armies stand with their noses to their noses all day long, with guns in their hands, and once the trigger is pulled, the bullet will kill people. How can conflict be avoided?” Therefore, He proposed to implement a quarantine policy, and the two sides would withdraw 20 kilometers each. If the Indian side quits, we unilaterally withdraw.
According to Mao Zedong’s proposal, at this Hangzhou meeting, the central government established an isolation policy to avoid border conflicts.
On November 7, 1959, Zhou Enlai, on behalf of the Chinese government, wrote to Indian Prime Minister Nehru, suggesting that the armed forces of the two countries should immediately withdraw 20 kilometers from the line of actual control and separate from armed contact. The Prime Minister will hold talks as soon as possible.
However, Indian Prime Minister Nehru refused to accept it. Instead, he believed that China was weak and could be bullied, which intensified the armed provocation at the Sino-Indian border. After Nehru rejected the Chinese proposal, for the common interests of the two countries and peace in Asia and the world, Mao Zedong decided:Chinese troops unilaterally withdraw 20 kilometers from the Sino-Indian border.
In January 1960, China took a series of extraordinary measures and ordered us not to shoot, patrol, rebel, hunt, target, or exercise within 20 kilometers of the actual line of control. No blasting; for provocative invading Indian troops, they must first warn them to retreat. When the dissuasion fails, they can disarm them in accordance with international practice; after persuasion, they will return their weapons and let them leave.
The series of measures taken by the Chinese military have received a strong response from international public opinion. It is generally believed that the patience and restraint possessed by the Chinese military are truly amazing.
In the two years after the Chinese government unilaterally ordered the army to retreat 20 kilometers, the Indian army not only failed to converge at all, but intensified its offensive into China. In April 1960, Zhou Enlai flew to New Delhi to hold high-level talks with Nehru on border issues. Nehru’s attitude did not change at all, and once again made territorial claims to China. That is 125,000 square kilometers of Chinese territory, which is equivalent to a Fujian province. How can the Chinese government give in? In 1961, the Chinese government repeatedly proposed peace talks to Nehru and implemented the isolation policy, all of which were rejected. In 1962, the situation became more tense.
In June 1962, the Indian army accelerated its armed invasion of China. The eastern section had crossed the”McMahon Line” and entered the Chadong area in southern Tibet. As of the end of August, the Indian army had established more than 100 strongholds in China. These strongholds are tens or even several meters away from the Chinese outposts, forming a”face-to-face” confrontation. Some are wedged between the Chinese outposts, and some are inserted behind the Chinese border posts. The Indian army is approaching one step at a time, and it is clear that it is about to come to the door to make trouble.
Without tolerance, on October 18, 1962, an enlarged meeting of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee convened by Mao Zedong was held in Zhongnanhai Yi Nian Hall. This is an extraordinary meeting that will make major decisions on the Sino-Indian border issue. The top leaders of the party and the military, including Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Liu Shaoqi, Zhu De, Deng Xiaoping, Chen Yi, He Long, attended the meeting. At the same time, relevant generals Luo Ruiqing, Yang Chengwu, Zhang Guohua, Wang Shangrong, Lei Yingfu, and Zhang Hanfu and Qiao Guanhua from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs also attended the meeting. participate.
Mao Zedong, who presided over the meeting, first asked Qiao Guanhua and Lei Yingfu to report on the situation of the Sino-Indian border conflict and various reflections.
After they reported, Zhou Enlai began to speak. He emphatically analyzed the situation regarding the Sino-Indian border issue, and explained that from all aspects, we can’t do a self-defense counterattack. Therefore, he suggested that we should conduct a self-defense counterattack immediately. After in-depth analysis and discussion, the meeting unanimously agreed with Zhou Enlai’s opinions.
Mao Zedong said:”Over the years, we have adopted many methods to seek a peaceful solution to the Sino-Indian border issue. India did not do it and deliberately provoked armed conflicts, which became more and more fierce. It was really deceiving. Since Nehru has to fight, then we have to accompany him. Come and not be indecent. As the saying goes, if we don’t fight, there is no deal. Maybe we fight back, the border can be stabilized, and the peaceful settlement of the border issue can be achieved. But we The counterattack was merely warning and punitive in nature. It merely told Nehru and the Indian government that military means would not work to solve the border issue.”
After Mao Zedong finished speaking, the meeting went on to discuss the Chinese and Indian armed forces. The question of strength comparison and whether you can win.
Zhang Guohua, the commander of the Tibet Military Region, stayed in the interior to recuperate after attending the 7,000-member meeting held by the central government. He was disrupted by the Sino-Indian border conflict when his life became calmer. Central leaders and the Military Commission headquarters summoned him from time to time.
Mao Zedong asked Zhang Guohua:”I heard that the Indian army still has some fighting capacity. Can we win the fight?” Zhang Guohua replied affirmatively and confidently:”If you win, please rest assured, the chairman, we will definitely be able to fight. You have to win.”
Mao Zedong said:”Maybe we can’t win, there’s nothing we can do. When we can’t win, we don’t complain, but we have no ability. The worst outcome is nothing more than It was the Indian army that invaded Tibet, our territory. But Tibet is the sacred territory of China, which is known to all and can never be changed. One day, we will take it back.”
Everyone is here After analyzing and studying the situation, they agreed that the victory over the Indian army is certain. But Mao Zedong has repeatedly reminded everyone that we have no experience in fighting against India, and we must not be indifferent, we must carefully arrange to fight this battle. As for the counterattack plan, agreed to the plan jointly drafted by the General Staff and Commander Zhang Guohua.
According to the suggestions made by the General Staff, the counterattack time is set for October 20 (that is, two days after the meeting), and the front-line commander is Zhang Guohua, commander of the Tibet Military Region.
Before leaving the Yi Nian Hall, Chen Yi and He Long both learned from Zhang Guohua about the border defense preparations.
Zhang Guohua doesn’t say much:”We have adjusted according to the chairman’s statement that’the border defense forces are not abundant’. If you want to fight, it will be the top of the mountain.”
Chen Yi and He Long exchanged After thinking about it, he said to Zhang Guohua:”To choose soldiers and generals, cadres must not only be military, but also politically minded and brave.” He Long’s pipe kept smoking. He solemnly said to Zhang Guohua:”If anyone flees before the battle, they must be captured and disciplined on the battlefield as they did during the civil war.”
Zhang Guohua quickly marked his notes and took the time to make his suggestions.”I think we must not only prepare to fight back against the invading Indian army, but also prepare to fight the rebels who fled to Nepal.”
Zhang Guohua also proposed himself in terms of military strength, cadres, materials and ideological preparations. the opinion of.
Soon, a combat command organization code-named”April 19th Army” was formed. After the determination of the central government was made, Zhang Guohua was ready to fly to the front line and specifically command the self-defense counterattack of Tawang on the eastern section of the Sino-Indian border. Before leaving, the central government called him again.
Walking into Zhongnanhai, the Central Standing Committee meeting is going on. Mao Zedong stood in front of a huge map, with a cigarette in one hand, and a hug gesture with the other hand, and said,”Let’s go in and don’t fight.” He changed his posture, as if talking to himself.”21 square kilometers, more than 2,000 people, it’s okay to make a wish, but in fact it’s impossible.” The cigarette butt lit up a few times, and he pondered for a long time. He pointed to the Indian army stronghold and slashed with a big hand while raising his voice. :”Sweep it!”
After speaking, he himself smiled. In fact, Mao Zedong hesitated for several nights as to whether to fight or not. What worries about is that Nehru was highly prestigious at the time, and his military power was weak compared to him, which could easily arouse sympathy from countries that do not know the truth. After the General Staff issued the combat pre-order, Mao Zedong was still considering whether to fight or not. After analyzing that Nehru’s biggest trump card was that China did not dare to play them, he instead strengthened his determination to play. At the same time, China intends to tell Khrushchev that Khrushchev still holds the attitude of playing 50 boards each, and has not publicly expressed opposition. He also told the Chinese ambassador to the Soviet Union that the Soviet Union had obtained similar information. If China was attacked, it would be natural to fight back. The United States has focused its main energy on preparing for a war against the Soviet Union and cannot provide much assistance to India. Chinese diplomats are also lobbying their views to the third world. Fighting back at this time is beneficial to China.
General Secretary Deng Xiaoping added:”We must buy time.” He turned his face and asked Zhang Guohua again:”Is there enough food?”
Zhang Guohua replied:”The food produced in the Guangxi Military Region is still There are more than 200 million catties.”
Deng Xiaoping was very satisfied:”Okay, this has a strategic vision.”
The Secretary-General of the Military Commission Luo Ruiqing asked:”Are you sure?”
Zhang Guohua replied straightforwardly:”Yes.”
“According to it?”
“The enemy we face is India’s ace army, But it is not comparable to the main force of Chiang Jieshi. They have not fought for a long time, but we have just put down the rebellion; they have not been to the mountains, but we often live in the mountains ……”
The Standing Committee remained open until late at night, and the leaders talked about the details from the general policy. Zhang Guohua wanted to remember and provide information at the same time, so he was very nervous. When the meeting broke up, my head was so painful that it was about to split. Hypertension is committed again. He didn’t say anything, and quickly boarded the plane.
On October 18, the day Zhang Guohua arrived in Lhasa, an enlarged meeting of the Standing Committee of the Military Region was convened urgently. The chief of staff of the military region Wang Kang first delivered the instructions of the central authorities:”The chief thinks that this battle is like the Pingxingguan battle and is of great significance. The fight will be fierce, and he will be stepped on his feet if he is killed. The central decision is that the front is under the command of the Tibet Military Region. The tactical deployment adjustments and other matters are all decided by Commander Zhang Guohua. In the past, the headquarters stipulated that no guns should be shot at 50 meters away.”
Zhang Guohua stood up and conveyed Mao Zedong’s instructions. He learned brilliantly, including Mao Zedong’s slow chopping with his hands. He spoke very quickly, and then whispered a few words after asking a series of questions. It seems that these are the main words he wants to say:”The matter is of great importance and the impact is far-reaching. My determination is:prepare for 1,300 casualties. Don’t think about casualties at all, whether 1,300 or 2,300, hit one. Make up one and always keep the four large regiments full.” When the generals talk about battle expectations, they always feel extra joyous, even when they give orders:”In order to strengthen the command, we can all go down. If necessary, the deputy commander can go to the regiment. To strengthen.” He looked around the venue again, and his words were full of agitation:”Now is an extraordinary period. Everything must be centered on fighting, everything must be obedience to the front line, and we will implement our responsibilities to the end. Now Beijing is up to us. It’s time for Communist Party members to act!”
■Mao Zedong believed in Zhang Guohua:”Let him fight! If you can’t fight again!” After winning the first battle, Zhang Guohua shrugged and smiled:”This way An easy victory. This is the first time I have been in the army for 33 years!” The first encouraging telegram was withdrawn before it could be forwarded, and the second telegram came immediately with a sentimental sentence added.
Zhang Guohua entered the front command post Ma Ma on the 19th.
Before the war, the atmosphere in the command post was tense. Sometimes he concentrates on studying the map, sometimes he walks away from the map and thinks deeply.”Be cautious in the first battle” is a very difficult front of the car, and victory in the first battle is the minimum requirement. After all, it was the first time to fight with the Indian army. Is it a”Tai Chi school” or a”Shaolin school”? It is estimated that the main force of the Kuomintang will not be strong, but it cannot be underestimated. It is like fighting against the middle-level Kuomintang troops by”cats” as”tigers”. At that time, there was an opinion that, in order to be cautious, only hit the sand and eat a little bit of the enemy’s battalion. This is a very safe plan. Zhang Guohua thinks over and over again, eat a camp, it is not painful or itchy, if you want to eat, eat it for a trip!
When he told this idea to another leader, that leader shook his body:”This is too risky! In case…”
There is another leader who doesn’t No worries:”Now that the battle is going to be a big battle, will the launch of the battle be delayed by two days so that the troops can fully prepare?”
Zhang Guohua did not make a statement. He said:”Look at the preparations of the troops.”
The political commissar of Yin Fa Tang, on behalf of the two-level leaders of the newly formed 119th Army Division, said again:”Commander Zhang, the launch of the campaign cannot be postponed!”
“What’s the reason?” Zhang Guohua kept quiet.
“More than 10,000 people entered the battlefield and stayed hidden in the forest for one day and one night, without fireworks, and two days later, it was easy to reveal the combat intentions. Then there was no suddenness in the attack!”
Zhang Guohua slapped the table:”No longer postpone, let the enemy be a prisoner before wearing pants.”
Two opinions were reflected in Zhongnanhai. Some leaders also believed that Zhang Guohua was Adventurous, but Mao Zedong does not like to stick to stereotypes. He pushed the manuscript of another opinion to the side of the table, quite dumbfounded:”He is a frontline commander, let him fight! If the fight is not good, start again!”
The plan was set. At the cadre meeting, Zhang Guohua’s agitated voice suppressed the uproar before the attack:
“The enemy in front of you is not 1300, but 2500. We are ready to fight it at 3000. If we reinforce it, we will hit it at 5000. Three To solve the problem in five days, don’t be afraid of casualties, prepare for 2,000 casualties. You must fight well, fight fast, make a quick fight, and be sure to wipe out all. Fighting is not restricted by the “wheat line”, but you must report to the central government. It is the people in front who are in charge, and the poor supply is the responsibility of the person in charge of the logistics. Whoever is not doing it well must be held accountable. If the fight is not good, the negative statement is the unfinished task; the positive statement is not enough for the party members!”
After the meeting, he made arrangements again:to prepare more pork, organize the film crews of the various troupes, and move the military art troupe to the front to boost morale.
At 7:30 on October 20th, the East had just revealed its white fish belly, and the artillery fire of our People’s Liberation Army poured out over the Indian army’s position that invaded Kejielang. At 9:30, the first stronghold of the Indian army was captured. By 8 o’clock in the evening, the Battle of Kjelang ended. Zhang Guohua shrugged and smiled:”This is an easy victory. This is the first time I have been in the army for 33 years!”
On the 23rd, the central government called and praised:”The combat troops are in the difficult conditions of the cold plateau. Highly motivated, arduous, fighting bravely, and utterly annihilated the enemy.” The former pointed out that the military commander had just received this encouragement message, and before it had time to forward it, he received a notice from the central government to withdraw it. Zhang Guohua’s heart tightened:What happened? When he received the second telegram, the doubts in his heart gradually resolved. The latter telegram only contains two sentences more than the previous one:one sentence is”good news frequently spreads”, and the other sentence is quite emotional,”the Central Committee and the Military Commission are extremely happy.” Why did you withdraw the previous telegram again? Zhang Guohua wondered:Look at this tone, it looks like two sentences added by Chairman Mao himself. His happiness is beyond words. He hopes that the telegram can even more encourage frontline morale…Yes, it must be!
In just over a month, two battles and some sporadic battles under the command of Zhang Guohua were victorious. Annihilated 3 brigades, captured the ace brigade Davier and another brigadier general Singh, killed and captured more than 7,000 enemies, accounting for 80%of the counterattack on the Sino-Indian border. The Chinese combat troops also paid the price, with 1,460 casualties. What is important is that the combat experience is gained in peacetime. After the war, many combat backbones were transferred to other troops. In 1963, Zhang Guohua also appointed 12 company and platoon commanders who had participated in the battle for the Central Guard Corps on Mao Zedong’s proposal.
■Zhang Guohua returned to Beijing to report to the Central Working Conference. When he walked on the rostrum of Huairentang, he looked left and right:his seat was arranged between Chairman Mao and Chairman Liu. Mao Zedong’s conclusion is:Shaking the mountains is easy, but shaking the PLA is difficult
In 1963, Zhang Guohua returned to Beijing to attend a work conference held by the central government. The secretary informed him that the chairman would personally listen to his report. Zhang Guohua was a little dazed:”Call others to report.”
“No, the chairman called to listen to you, saying that you have been on the front line and have the most say.”
In Zhang Guohua’s heart Uneasy. He knows that the chairman likes to interject questions and improvise when listening to reports from his subordinates. He was afraid of missing any details, and the answer was wrong… It seemed that he had to step up preparations to report the outline. After the preparation, he felt unsure, so he sent the outline to the Secretary-General of the Military Commission Luo Ruiqing for review. Luo Ruiqing approved a line on it:”This case has been read, it is very good, please report to the Central Working Conference accordingly.”
On the afternoon of February 19, the report meeting was held in Huairen Hall, Zhongnanhai. When Zhang Guohua walked up to the rostrum of Huairentang, his calm expression suddenly became tense again, as if all his eyes were shooting at him and smiling at him. He looked to the left and then to the right, his seat was actually arranged between the two chairmen Mao Zedong and Liu Shaoqi! He also couldn’t remember how he got to his seat. When people are too nervous, they abandon all distractions. He enlightened himself:The microphone is not a machine gun, what are you afraid of! Anyway, it’s what I experienced personally, just say it straight.
When he talked about the fact that some troops were too hasty in the battle, Mao Zedong really interrupted, saying:”The 55th Division, sent by truck from Xining in Qinghai, was mobilized on the road. Fight when it arrives. The 130th Division is a production unit in Sichuan. Put down the hoe and get in the car. As soon as it arrives, it will mobilize the car. It is very hasty.” Mao Zedong pointed to Zhang Guohua:”That is, your general is also a temporary dispatch. Go there.”
Mao Zedong encouraged Zhang Guohua to continue. When Zhang Guohua said that”this struggle is a complicated political and military struggle”, Mao Zedong happily interjected:”We must pay attention to the military. It is dangerous to engage in literature and not military. Comrades must be prepared for war and must train for 8 months a year.” Mao Zedong turned his face, looked at Zhang Guohua with a smile, and said half-jokingly:”You are also the secretary! Once a war is fought, your illness will be cured.”Mao Zedong smashed the ashes and added:”Of course, we still need to be cured.”
Zhang Guohua went on to say:”The Central Military Commission and the headquarters will give us every major transition period in the battle. He gave timely, specific and detailed instructions…”
Mao Zedong interrupted:”I joined the war this time. There are Shaoqi, the Prime Minister, Xiaoping…”
Zhang Guohua reported that there were many recent battles this time. Mao Zedong said:”Pay attention to close combat and night combat. To imperialism, I don’t believe that you won’t win close combat or night combat. On the Korean battlefield, Americans are afraid of close combat, night combat, grenades, bayonet, and fear of tens of meters or more. Shooting like this one hundred meters.”
Zhang Guohua said:”The participating troops are very emotional. The Tibetan people behaved very well in the battle…”
Mao Zedong said:”The most basic reason Yes, we are an army of workers and peasants, and an army led by the Communist Party. The Tibetan people were oppressed in the past, but now they are liberated; because they are not rich, but the poor, proletarians, and semi-proletarians; because we treat the working people of Tibet With a comradely attitude, why would they do this?”
Zhang Guohua went on to say:”The Indian Defense Minister said that the Chinese army stabbed them in the back.”
The smile said:”Why can’t the army of workers and peasants and the army under the leadership of the Communist Party win the war? Japan, Chiang Kai-shek, the United States, and India have all been conquered! The Indians said they had captured our captives and couldn’t deliver them. Okay. Ah! We were not caught.”
Zhang Guohua reported:”In transportation, we rely on local laws, ourselves, and the masses. Without air force support, we rely on the ground; without roads, we rely on people and people. Animals; there is no small, light, nutritious dry food, relying on tsampa…”
Mao Zedong interjected:”At this point, he is modernization, we are primitive, but revolution is primitive. Conquered counter-revolutionary modernization.”
Finally, Mao Zedong commented on the Sino-Indian border war:“We fought a military and political war, or a political and military war. This battle can at least maintain the Sino-Indian border. 10 years of stability.”
History fully proved Mao Zedong’s foresight. In fact, since 1962, for more than 40 years, the Sino-Indian border has maintained a relatively stable situation. The achievement of this situation is closely related to this battle. Without this battle, it would be difficult to maintain such a long period of peace and stability.
Soon, Luo Ruiqing reported to Mao Zedong about the fact that the participating troops were not afraid of hardship and not afraid of death. Mao Zedong thoughtfully:
“In the past, Yue Fei said:’Civil officials do not love money, military attaches are not afraid of death, the world is peaceful.” Starving to death does not grab food, and freezing to death does not demolish houses.” The first two sentences There is one-sidedness. At that time, Jin Wushu said that it is easy to shake the mountain and it is difficult to shake the Yue family. Today I want to say that it is difficult to shake the mountain and shake the PLA.”
(Source:”Party History”, author :Yin Jiamin)