China and India are neighbors that cannot be moved and have a long history of exchanges. After the founding of New China, Mao Zedong and the Chinese government have always made the establishment and development of friendly and cooperative relations with India the focus of their good-neighborly policy.
However, from 1951 to 1953, the Indian authorities, which were deeply influenced by the British colonial rule, took advantage of the establishment of the People’s Republic of China and the war to resist US aggression and aggression, instructing the Indian army to illegally seize the eastern section of the Sino-Indian border 90,000 square kilometers of Chinese territory south of the”McMahon Line”.
Since then, India has never stopped on the Sino-Indian border The provocation of troubles has eroded China’s territory.
Mao Zedong and the Chinese government put Asian peace and Sino-Indian friendship as the most important, they have always adopted a tolerant attitude towards India’s aggression, and have made unremitting efforts to peacefully resolve the Sino-Indian border issue. In May 1959, Mao Zedong, through the Chinese Ambassador to India Pan Zili, conveyed to the Indian authorities China’s friendly attitude and firm stand on the peaceful settlement of the border issue. On November 9th of the same year, Mao Zedong added a paragraph to Zhou Enlai’s letter to the Indian Prime Minister Nehru on the Sino-Indian border issue, further expressing his sincerity in the peaceful settlement of the Sino-Indian border issue. Mao Zedong pointed out in this paragraph :
“If the two governments do not want to come up with a very proper solution, I am worried that border conflicts that both sides are unwilling to see may occur in the future. As long as this type of conflict occurs, even if it is small The conflict between the two countries will be used by those who are hostile to the friendship between our two countries to achieve their ulterior goals.”
On March 18, 1960, when Mao Zedong met with Nepal’s Prime Minister Hua Pu Koirala, During India’s relations, he said:
“We have had some awkwardness with India. It doesn’t matter, we will pass it soon. We have the same interests, and we are all underdeveloped countries. It is untrue to say that China invaded India. We will not want other people’s land. It is a crime to want someone else’s land.”
Mao Zedong’s remarks once again demonstrated to India China’s sincerity in seeking a peaceful settlement of the border dispute.
For the peaceful sincerity that the Chinese government has repeatedly expressed, India has not only failed to listen to it, but has intensified it. When the situation developed in 1962, when India pushed on the Chinese territory, we still began to resort to concessions. So much so that the Indian soldiers snatched the guns of the Chinese sentries.
face As the situation got worse, Mao Zedong couldn’t sleep well for several days. He thought deeply; China and India are both ancient civilizations and have a long history of exchanges. After the founding of New China, it was the co-sponsor of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence. Why does India have to fight on the border, not hesitate to shed blood and fight against it?
It is Zhou Enlai who knows Mao Zedong’s concerns best. After being aware of Mao Zedong’s worries, he instructed Lei Yingfu, the deputy head of the General Staff’s Operations Department in charge of the Sino-Indian border issues, to conduct research with the General Staff’s Surveillance Team, which is the”special group to study and prevent enemy surprise attacks,” and provide opinions for Mao Zedong. reference.
Lei Yingfu is one of the most trusted military staff personnel of Mao Zedong. Lei Yingfu was discovered by Mao Zedong by chance when he was in Yan’an. Later Mao Zedong recommended Lei Yingfu to Zhou Enlai. One winter in the early 1950s, Mao Zedong once confronted Lei Yingfu (Lei Yingfu was Zhou Enlai’s military secretary at the time) in front of Zhou Enlai and said:“You are from Luoyang. The place in Luoyang has always been imperial and academic. Talented and talented, many big intellectuals came out.” Then, he pointed to his head and said to Lei Yingfu:
“You are a person who is good at thinking about problems when things happen, and some think thoroughly. , Is a very good adviser. The ancients have a font name to show their taste and realm. I remember that I gave you a font name in Yan’an. It is called’Luoyang Talented Person’!”
Actually, Lei Yingfu and the anti-turmoil team have been intensively studying the situation on the Sino-Indian border. After receiving the task from Zhou Enlai, he immediately worked overtime and carefully sorted out around the clock, and summarized the five main reasons for India’s increasing provocation. The main points are:
1. India is not willing Abandoning the original British government’s expansion policy, in order to create a fait accompli;
Two, India believes that a large international background is beneficial to it;
Three, India has a desire to dominate South Asia;
Four. In recent years, India’s domestic situation is not good and I want to shift the contradiction;
Mao Zedong was listening to Lei Yingfu’s report. When talking about the fourth point, he said that he had already thought of these four points. When Mao Zedong heard the fifth point, he immediately expressed his special appreciation.
The fifth point is this:
“Fifth, the military situation is incorrectly estimated. The Indian side believes that China’s main regular force is in the southeast and is used to deal with the US-supported Taiwan The Kuomintang’s counterattack; since Sino-Soviet relations, especially after the riots on the borders of Tacheng and Yili, the Sino-Soviet border in the north has absorbed a large amount of China’s military power, so that the east and north lines account for 90%of China’s total force. The China-India border area is a weak link. Xinjiang and Tibet have almost no regular troops except for a few border troops. Moreover, China has not recovered from three years of natural disasters and severe economic difficulties, unable to support the war, and even more difficult to take care of the distant ones. The southwest border. The advancement of the Indian army will not be subject to a strong blow. The Indian side even summarized China’s strategy against India as’just call not bite’.”
Lei Yingfu said at the time:” There is a Chinese saying that a dog that bites does not bark. Nehru believes that China’s policy is to only bark and not bite, and never dare to beat him, so he can enter the army with confidence.” After Mao Zedong heard this, he immediately decided, since the Indian side believed that China was weak. Can be bullied, then beat him coldly.
The Chinese army really fought coldly. The counterattack was quickly won. From October 20 to mid-November, a total of 3 Indian brigades were wiped out, 3 Indian brigades were basically wiped out, and 5th, 67th, 114th and 129th brigades were wiped out. Killed 4,885 people under Brigadier General Hoshir Singh of the 62nd Brigade of the Indian Army, and captured 3968 people under Brigadier General Ji Pudarvi of the 7th Brigade of the Indian Army. China killed 722 people. The counterattack severely hit the regional hegemonism and expansion policy of the Nehru government in India, defended the border defenses in western China, hit the anti-Chinese countercurrents in the world and the separatist forces in Tibet of China at that time, and enhanced the aspirations of the Chinese people. Maintained the dignity of the Chinese nation.
The Battle of Walong was the key and final battle in the Sino-Indian border counterattack. It wiped out all 3 battalions, 1 battalion, and the 11th Indian Brigade. Unit. Ding Sheng, commander of the 54th Army, who was in charge of the war in the direction of Walong, gave a report on December 6, 1963 at the Nanjing Higher Military Academy, detailing the situation of the counterattack. One thing is still very enlightening.
When describing the heroic deeds of the fighters, Ding Sheng pointed out:
“Like these fighters, we think it is a product of the Mao Zedong era and the result of Mao Zedong’s ideological education”.”These facts fully demonstrate the love and infinite loyalty of our soldiers to the motherland, to the people, to the party, and to our great leader Chairman Mao. We defend the motherland, defend the frontiers, win glory for Chairman Mao, and promote the prestige of the country.”
The process of Mao Zedong’s decision on the Sino-Indian border counterattack war can also show that although Mao Zedong’s military talent is recognized by the world, he is not a god. In addition to his talent, his superb military talent also comes from his modest learning, good at learning and thinking. Lei Yingfu has a deep understanding of this. Lei Yingfu said that what he admired most about Mao Zedong was his”pre-war kung fu.” Before the battle decision, the room was full of military maps of various sizes and resumes of the chief officer above the enemy division. The documents that are not in a hurry are piled up at the desk. He can ignore them at all, just pacing back and forth with cigarettes one by one. Sometimes, ten days and eight days, he thinks about a question and thinks through. Before making a decision.
If we look at the fifth reason above, we can see that Mao Zedong’s decision-making did not only focus on India, but also the United States and the Soviet Union behind India. The printing degree is also for the United States and the Soviet Union to see:China is not a mess!
Zhou Enlai 10 When meeting with the Soviet ambassador to China Chervonenko on the 8th, he beat the Soviet Union once and showed that if the Indian army launches an offensive, we will resolutely defend ourselves. And specifically pointed out that India uses Soviet-made rice format helicopters to carry out airdrops in the western and eastern sections to transport military supplies, which has an impact on the soldiers in front of us.
The United States has always called India”the window of Western democracy and freedom” (the United States is still obsessed with it). After the Indian army was defeated, Nehru sent a letter to US President Kennedy in a hurry, requesting that the United States send troops to stop the so-called Chinese aggression. China took the initiative to withdraw its troops quickly, and Nehru’s letter could not be received. India requires the United States to send troops to fight against China. What an anti-imperialist and non-aligned one! (India claims to be a non-aligned country) Nehru did not dare to send the draft of the letter to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, but kept it in the Prime Minister’s Office. This incident was later revealed in the book”India’s War against China” written by British journalist Maxwell.
This fast-forward and fast-out counterattack also struck the United States and the Soviet Union, shaking the world, and arousing heated discussions in overseas newspapers at that time. The American”Christian Science Monitor” compares China’s printing degree to:”It’s like cutting butter with a knife.” The West German newspaper Le Monde said:”It defeated the Indian army like a windbreaker.” The Hong Kong”Ming Pao” commented on our troop’s voluntary ceasefire retreat and handover of weapons, said:”Unprecedented, extremely chic and extremely beautiful.”
The Sino-Indian border counterattack is the growth of new China An episode in the process, but it can also prove that the new China can not only stand up, but also stand stronger and stronger. The Western camp, headed by the United States, finally understood that the CCP regime is not a”temporary regime”, and that what Chiang Kai-shek referred to as the”fire and dry wood” on the mainland is nothing more than a false report of military information in order to deceive more military aid. France took the lead in extending a friendly hand to New China in 1964. The United States has finally begun to explore ways to improve Sino-US relations.
This article is the original”Party History Boca”
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