On February 9, 1962, Li Kenong, the founding general of New China, completed his 63-year-old life journey. The next day, late at night, the 76-year-old Dong Biwu, Vice President of the State, watched the heavy snow flying outside the window, and wrote poems affectionately, mourning:”Thirty years ago, I have credited things, knowing the emperor can transfer to China. It is like a house servant. Shooting is the same as Li Zuoche…”
Dong Lao is one of the founders of our party. He knows Li Kenong deeply and has a deep friendship.”Like Li Zuoche”, compares Li Kenong’s role and talent with Fang Xuanling, the minister of Emperor Taizong’s reliance on, and Li Zuoche, a great adviser in the Qin and Han dynasties. It not only vividly describes Li Kenong’s contribution to the Chinese revolution, but also indirectly reveals A mystery of our party. Among the 57 founding generals, Li Kenong is the only one who has not led or fought on the battlefield. Why did Mao Zedong compare him with the battlefield generals and award them the honor? This is because Li Kenong comes from a special battlefield and is an outstanding leader of the hidden front of our party and our army.
In the KMT intelligence heart, build a communist intelligence team
In 1927, the Great Revolution failed, and the bloody wind enveloped the land of China. Facing the serious white terror, Zhou Enlai and other leaders realized that a special institution must be established to”strengthen the party’s political defense.” In November 1927, the Special Operations Section of the CPC Central Committee was established in Shanghai. At the end of 1929, Li Kenong became a member of the Central Teco under the leadership of Zhou Enlai.
Li Kenong was born in Chaoxian County, Anhui Province in 1899. He joined the party in 1926. After the 42nd counter-revolutionary coup, he was wanted by the Kuomintang. In order to get rid of the enemy’s pursuit, he disguised himself from Wuhu to Nanjing and then to Shanghai, and finally found a party organization and served as a propaganda committee member of the Shanghai Central Committee of the Communist Party of China.
One day, in the studio of a film company, he met his old friend Hu Di, and after Hu Di introduced him, he met Qian Zhuangfei.”Communists”, a symbol shared by the three, quickly made them”comrades + close friends.” At that time, Qian Zhuangfei had entered the Party Affairs Investigation Section of the Central Organization Department of the Kuomintang (the predecessor of Zhongtong) and served as the confidential secretary of the Director of the Investigation Section Xu Enzeng . During the revolution in Wuhu, Li Kenong had a brief experience of breaking into the Qinggang and spying on intelligence for the revolution. He realized that Qian Zhuangfei’s current position was both a”Longtan Tiger’s Den” and an”Intelligence Highland.”
“Zhuangfei, it’s hard for you to deal with it alone. Is there any way to insert another nail in?” Li Kenong’s question reminded Qian Zhuangfei of the Kuomintang’s plan to expand the spy organization. In the name of Shanghai Radio Administration Bureau, recruit broadcast news”editors”.
Good idea! Li Kenong’s heart brightened. He reported this information and their design to the Party Central Committee through the Jiangsu Provincial Committee of the Communist Party of China. Soon, Chen Geng, who was the chief of the second section of the Central Special Branch, met with him and informed him that “the central government fully agrees with Qian Zhuangfei’s recommendation and your own application”, and specially conveyed Zhou Enlai’s instruction to “take the enemy’s spy organization”. Come here and use it for us”.
Li Kenong was originally the”pen” of our party. After examination, he joined the Shanghai Radio Administration in December 1929 and entered the enemy’s intelligence heart.
In order to make Li Kenong”stand out”, Zhou Enlai often handed over some expired documents of our party to him, and Li Kenong sent him to Nanjing under the name of”captured Communist Party documents.” Xu En had admired Li Kenong’s shrewdness and ability, and soon promoted him to the chief of the Electricity Section of the Shanghai Radio Administration Bureau, in charge of the national radio operator team. This is an excellent position for obtaining intelligence and sending intelligence personnel to our party. Li Kenong was overjoyed. After Li Kenong gained a foothold, Hu Di successfully entered Xu Enzeng’s intelligence department under Qian Zhuangfei’s arrangement and served as the president of the Great Wall News Agency.
In 1930, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China instructed the establishment of a”special party group” of Li Kenong, Qian Zhuangfei, and Hu Di, with Li Kenong as the leader. Major issues were discussed by the party group and then implemented separately. Li Kenong and Chen Geng Make contact. In order to facilitate the transmission of information, the organization also selected Song Zhi’s family to live in Li’s house as a”servant” and serve as Li Kenong’s underground traffic officer.
From December 1929 to April 1931, the”special party group” successively obtained a lot of valuable information for our party during the incubation period. From the winter of 1930 to the spring of 1931, Chiang Jieshi launched the first and second large-scale military”encirclement and suppression” orders and deployment of troops to the Central Revolutionary Base The top-secret strategic information, in April 1931, the sudden emergency information such as Gu Shunzhang, the head of the Central Special Branch, was rebelled. Qian Zhuangfei obtained it from Xu Enzeng and urgently sent it to Chen Geng by Li Kenong. At the critical moment, they defended the Party Central Committee and the Central Red Army. Li Kenong, Qian Zhuangfei, and Hu Di were praised by Zhou Enlai as the”Three Great Dragons”.
After Gu Shunzhang defected, Li Kenong was completely exposed. In August 1931, following the instructions of the Central Committee, he secretly evacuated from Shanghai and entered the Jiangxi Soviet Area, where he served as the executive minister of the Central State Political Security Bureau, and continued to be responsible for the security of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China.
Our party representatives contacted with Zhang Xueliang strong>
In December 1935, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China held the Wayaobao Conference and established the strategy of establishing the anti-Japanese national united front. It was announced immediately that the Liaison Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China was established, with Li Kenong as the director; the Northeast Army working committee was established, with Zhou Enlai as the director and Li Kenong as the director. The main task is to fight for the Northeast Army to stop the civil war and join forces with the Red Army to resist Japan.
After the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China decided to send Li Kenong as a representative of the Red Army to contact Zhang Xueliang.
On February 21, 1936, snow was flying and the plateau of northern Shaanxi was covered in silver. Li Kenong and his party of 4 went to Luochuan secretly under the blizzard. At that time, there were many eyes and ears of Chiang Kai-shek in the Northeast Army. Li Kenong’s trip to Luochuan was strictly confidential, and the costumes of the group were carefully designed. Li Kenong knows that this contact is related to the overall situation of our party’s unity against Japan, and the responsibility is heavier than Mount Tai. Before the departure, Zhou Enlai also specially exhorted,”We must strive to reach a conclusion. If the negotiation fails, we must also negotiate a peace.”
On the 25th, Li Kenong and his party arrived in Luochuan. According to the advance arrangement, he entered the city at midnight and lived in a secluded courtyard in secret.
The Luochuan negotiations were conducted in two stages. In the first stage, Li Kenong and Wang Yizhe held talks and reached five verbal agreements, including the Red Army and the Northeast Army’s 67th Army, including”non-aggression and defense”,”restoration of trade between the red zone and the white zone”. In the second stage, Li Kenong held talks with Zhang Xueliang. Mainly negotiate the entire Northeast Army and the Red Army truce, joint resistance against Japan. During the negotiation, Zhang Xueliang was humorous, arrogant and arrogant, while Li Kenong was neither humble nor overbearing and flexible in strategy. Once, Zhang Xueliang set up a trap:”I want to ask, can your Red Army lay down its weapons and accept the government’s adaptation?” Li Kenong replied flatly:”Mr. Zhang, don’t make a mistake. I am a negotiator, not a surrender representative.” After speaking, got up and walked out. Seeing the situation, Zhang Xueliang immediately turned and the negotiations continued. The negotiations between Li Kenong and Zhang Xueliang started at 3 pm on March 4 and discussed at 5 am on March 5, and reached a preliminary agreement on the establishment of telecommunications links between the Red Army and the Northeast Army, and the Chinese Communist Party’s permanent representative stationed in Xi’an to stop the civil war and jointly resist Japan. . Zhang Xueliang proposed to invite Mao Zedong or Zhou Enlai as the plenipotentiary representatives of the CCP to go to Fushi (Yan’an) for further talks.
On March 16, Li Kenong and his entourage rushed to the Red Army’s Eastern Expedition Frontline in Shanxi Shilou, and reported the negotiation process and Zhang Xueliang’s request to the central leaders such as Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai. Mao Zedong was extremely happy and praised:”Li Kenong is doing a good job this time alone!”
On April 9, the CPC Central Committee sent Zhou Enlai as its plenipotentiary representative to go to Fushi to negotiate with Zhang Xueliang, and Li Kenong went with him. During the Fushi negotiations, Zhang Xueliang completely accepted the Communist Party of China’s political propositions on stopping the civil war and jointly resisting Japan, and proposed to our party to”force Jiang to resist Japan.” On December 12, 1936, the Xi’an Incident broke out and China’s current situation changed significantly.
In his later years, Zhang Xueliang still missed his friendship with Zhou Enlai and never forgot to comment on Li Kenong:”This person is amazing!”
The famous”Eight Office” director in the Anti-Japanese War Culture City
Guilin has beautiful mountains and rivers. During the Anti-Japanese War, it was an important military and cultural center in the south and a”cultural city” well-known throughout the country. In November 1938, Li Kenong came to Guilin on the order of the Central Committee to establish the”Eight Route Army Guilin Office” as the director.
Li Kenong has rich experience in the united front. Since the nation’s war of resistance, he has served successively as the head (director) of the Eighth Route Army’s offices in Xi’an, Shanghai, and Nanjing, and the Secretary-General of the Eighth Route Army headquarters. But when he came to Guilin this time, his work environment and tasks were quite different. First, the Anti-Japanese War entered a stalemate stage, and the Kuomintang began to passively resist Japan and actively oppose the Communist Party; second, after the fall of Wuhan and Guangzhou, Guilin’s military status rose, Guilin Bai Chongxi took office in Guilin as deputy chief of staff, Chiang Kai-shek’s Fuxing Society, Chen Lifu and Chen Guofu The CC department and others have established strongholds here, and the various factions are mixed and competing; third is the identity of Li Kenong, in addition to being the director of the”Eight Office” externally, internally is the secretary-general of the Southern Bureau of the Communist Party of China, both rectifying and restoring the Communist Party The important task of the party organization in the southern region.
For the first time, Li Kenong first called on Huang Xuchu, chairman of Guangxi Province. Huang Xuchu is one of the three chiefs of the Gui family. As soon as they met, Huang simply asked him:”Is there a Communist Party in Guangxi?” Li Kenong replied calmly and wittily,”There are some, but I won’t bother you. If there is no Communist Party, it would be a lie to you, so I am.”Frank, friendly, and confessed, Li Kenong left a deep impression on Huang Xuchu, and laid a good foundation for the future cooperation between the”Eight Office” and the Gui Department.
In 1938, Guangxi Province organized the”Guangxi Local Construction Cadre School”, and Huang Xuchu personally served as the principal. After Li Kenong asked the Central Committee for instructions, he sent Yang Dongxin, a secret Communist Party member and a famous educator, to apply for the post of Director of Education of the”Care School” as a public figure to save the parliamentary democrat. Huang Xuchu readily agreed. In order to help Yang Dongxin run the”cadre school” well, Li Kenong carefully selected more than 10 Communist Party members to take on teaching tasks. Yang Dongxin’s work as a”cadre school” accepts Li Kenong’s direct leadership, but the method is secret. From the beginning of 1939 to the end of 1940, the”cadre school” trained more than 4,000 anti-Japanese backbones.
The”Salvation Daily” was originally the official newspaper of the”Shanghai Cultural Circles Salvation Association”. It was re-published in Guilin in January 1939 under the coordination of Li Kenong. After the resumption of publication, the”Salvation Daily” not only disclosed its legal identity, but also maintained a united front style. Its circulation increased sharply and became a star light for the anti-Japanese salvation movement in the”Cultural City”; the newspaper No. 12 Taiping Road became a contact with democratic progressives Xia Yan, the editor-in-chief, also participated in the party’s united front work. In the spring of 1939,”Salvation Daily” organized several large-scale public performances to raise funds. Ordinary tickets generally sell for fifty cents. But one day, an officer came to the newspaper and bought the donation ticket for 50 yuan. This caught Xia Yan’s attention and immediately reported to Li Kenong. After Li Kenong learned that the gold master was Han Liancheng, deputy commander of the 170th Division of the 31st Army of the Gui Department, he guided Xia Yan to follow up the work in time, and the two became close friends. In the Battle of Laiwu, Shandong in February 1947, Han Liancheng, who was the commander of the 46th Army of the Kuomintang, made great contributions to annihilating 56,000 Li Pinxian troops in the East China Field Army in one fell swoop.
No. 138, Guibei Road, there is a striking sign of”Eight Route Army Guilin Office”. This is where Li Kenong’s”Eight Office” director works. However, few people know that at No. 206 Guibei Road, Li Kenong still has a working organization that leads the hidden front of the CCP. In this silent battlefield, Li Kenong carried out his work methodically in accordance with Zhou Enlai’s requirements for”concealed and capable” and accomplished his special mission well.
On January 6, 1941, the Southern Anhui Incident broke out and the situation of the united front in Guilin began to deteriorate. Because of his effective insider intelligence work, Li Kenong was”smart and clear” in Guilin. He decisively commanded the two sets of personnel on the open front and the hidden front, transferred cadres, concealed materials, and hidden personnel. Later, when he obtained information, Chiang Kai-shek issued a”secret order” to arrest Xia Yan, Hu Yuzhi and others. He reacted quickly and rushed to secretly send the”important criminals” in the wanted order to Hong Kong before the KMT secret agents started, completely thwarting the conspiracy of the Kuomintang diehards. The frustrated KMT secret agent publicly clamored for the”armed kidnapping of Li Kenong.” At the critical moment, Li Jishen sent someone to send a note, which read in his handwriting:”Clean Guilin, Kenong, go fast.”
At dawn on January 22, 1941, Li Kenong rode thousands of miles and evacuated Guilin calmly. The Eighth Route Army’s Guilin office work assignment for 2 years and 3 months.
“The intelligence work in the War of Liberation was the most successful”
March 1947, Yan’an There are dark clouds of war over the sky. Chiang Kai-shek concentrated on Hu Zongnan and other 34 brigades with 250,000 troops to launch a key attack on the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Liberated Area. At that time, the Chinese Communist Party in northern Shaanxi had only 6 brigades of 26,000 troops able to meet Hu Zongnan’s offensive.
26,000:250,000. According to the general logic, this is a war that is almost impossible to win. Moreover, Hu Zongnan’s troops are all American equipment, while the Northwest People’s Liberation Army is basically a”millet plus rifle.””Level. However, the People’s Liberation Army completely shattered Chiang Kai-shek’s key offensive. What is the reason?
In addition to the strategic decisions made by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and Mao Zedong, the Northwest People’s Liberation Army, commanded by General Peng Dao and Xi Zhongxun, was brave and proficient in fighting. There is another important reason, that is, the hidden front led by Li Kenong. The”Arabic Soldier”.
As early as September 1941, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the Central Military Commission established the Central Intelligence Department, with Li Kenong as the deputy minister and presiding over the standing work. The main task is to collect strategic intelligence with overall, critical, and decision-making nature to provide support for the Party Central Committee’s decision-making.
This is a major strategic change in the intelligence front of our party. Li Kenong directly participated in leading this change. During the War of Liberation, the Wang Shijian and Wang Chaobei intelligence systems in Xi’an, the Wu Kejian intelligence system in Shanghai, and the Pan Hannian intelligence system in Hong Kong repeatedly performed splendid and written legends on special battlefields, which are vivid epitome of this transformation.
Qingqingyan river, towering pagoda mountain. Yan’an has a particularly important strategic position in the process of the Chinese revolution. Early on, Li Kenong put forward a 16-character policy for the Xi’an intelligence system to “consolidate development, long-term plan, go deep into the enemy, and be capable and concealed.” After the victory of the Anti-Japanese War, he promptly instructed Xi’an intelligence agencies to monitor and obtain intelligence. The focus shifted to the military and political system of the Kuomintang around Yan’an, especially the movement of Hu Zongnan’s troops.
In March 1947, the relationship between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party was completely broken, and Chiang Kai-shek began to dispatch troops to Yan’an. But Chiang Kai-shek did not expect that his every move was in the control of our party’s intelligence agencies. On November 5 and early December, 1946, on February 4, February 28, March 5, and March 7, 1947, Li Kenong continued to receive Hu Zongnan’s military mobilization from the Xi’an Intelligence System and Chiang Kai-shek’s telegrams to Hu Zongnan Important information such as instructions.
At dawn on March 13, 1947, Hu Zongnan attacked Yan’an. Due to the disparity between the enemy and ourselves, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China decided to take the initiative to withdraw from Yan’an and fought in northern Shaanxi on March 19. At the critical moment, Xiong Xianghui, who had been lurking by Hu Zongnan for a long time and served as a deputy and confidential secretary, sent Hu Zongnan’s”Strategy of the Northern Shaanxi Operation Plan” and”The Army of the Northern Shaanxi Communist Party” and other important information. In the battles of Qinghuabian, Yangmahe, and Panlong Town, our army had three victories in three battles, which effectively defeated the arrogance of Hu Zongnan’s troops and stabilized the situation in northern Shaanxi. Zhou Enlai proudly said:”On the battlefield in northern Shaanxi, useful intelligence every day allows us to understand the enemy’s situation very clearly.”
The battlefield in northern Shaanxi has profoundly affected the overall strategic situation of the War of Liberation. With the victories of the People’s Liberation Army, the hidden front led by Li Kenong blossomed:a large number of intelligence personnel broke into the Kuomintang party’s political and military system; a large number of Kuomintang cipher texts were intercepted and deciphered; a large number of special party members in the Kuomintang camp began to divide and disintegrate key personnel. All of this has provided the CPC Central Committee and Mao Zedong with a decision-making basis for studying the war situation and formulating strategic policies. The”eyes” of intelligence and the”assistances” of hidden battlefields have played a unique role in the fact that our party and our army always hold the initiative in the war of liberation.
In 1948, Li Kenong was appointed as the acting minister of the Central Intelligence Department and chairman of the Central Secrecy Committee, in charge of counter-insurrection against the enemy. Mao Zedong instructed:”We need not only intelligence, but also human power when we have the conditions.” Li Kenong understood. He successively participated in instigating the peaceful liberation of Beiping, Hunan, Chuankang, Yunnan, Tibet, etc., and successfully instigated the Changchun defenders’ uprising. The Jiangyin Fortress defender’s uprising, several naval and air force uprisings, and the”two shipping” uprisings, have effectively cooperated with the national liberation. Mao Zedong commented:”The intelligence work in the War of Liberation is the most successful.”
The”invisible giant” of the Kaesong negotiations
On May 14, 1950, a report on Li Kenong’s illness was issued by Zhou Enlai and placed on Mao Zedong’s desk in Zhongnanhai.
Due to long-term fatigue and mental pressure on special battlefields, Li Kenong’s body has been”red light” since 1943. After the founding of New China, Zhou Enlai decided to let him stop working for a period of time and make a special trip to the Soviet Union for recuperation and treatment. But soon, the Korean War broke out. Li Kenong became more and more trouble sleeping and eating. After the founding of New China, he was Secretary of the Central Intelligence Committee of the Communist Party of China, Minister of the Central Intelligence Department, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Minister of the General Intelligence Department of the Central Military Commission. Li Kenong returned home soon, and devoted himself to the affairs of resisting US aggression and aid to Korea.
One day at the end of June 1951, a car ran towards the Zhongnanhai Juxiang Bookstore where Mao Zedong lived. In the first sentence of the meeting, Mao Zedong said,”I ordered your general, and I want you to go to Kaicheng.” On July 5, Li Kenong became ill and went out.
As agreed between China and North Korea, the Korean People’s Army and the Chinese People’s Volunteers formed a Kaesong negotiation delegation. Li Kenong was the head of the delegation, Qiao Guanhua assisted in the work, and the members who directly came forward to negotiate were Nanri, Deng Hua, Jiefang, Li Xiangchao, and Zhang Pingshan.
North Korea’s armistice negotiations were the first face-to-face diplomatic struggle with the world’s number one power, the United States, after the founding of New China. Before each negotiation, Li Kenong and the negotiation team must familiarize themselves with the documents, discuss countermeasures, and simulate internships. The language teaching is supplemented by example, and everyone is getting started.
When the negotiations entered a substantive discussion on”establishing a military demarcation line,” it quickly froze. China and North Korea proposed that the 38th parallel should be used as the military demarcation line. However, the U.S. flatly rejected it on the grounds that the superiority of navy and air force must be compensated on the ground, and delayed the time with silent cold-field tactics. At the 20th meeting on August 10, the representatives of China and North Korea finished their speeches, but the chief representative of the US, Joey, led his subordinates to refuse to answer, and there was a long silence in the venue. Seeing the anxiety of the representatives of China and North Korea, Chai Chengwen, who was in charge of the contact, quietly left the venue and asked Li Kenong:”I froze, what should I do?” Li Kenong wrote three words:”Sit down!” Passing on, the delegates were immediately rushed. This is a confrontation of perseverance and a special way of fighting. Silence, silence, half an hour passed, and an hour passed. The talks lasted 132 minutes from 1:38 to 3:50 in the afternoon, creating an unprecedented anecdote in the history of negotiations. There is also a”blitzkrieg”. One day, it was the turn of China and North Korea to chair the negotiations. When the representatives of both sides were seated, we announced:”The talks have begun.” Then we announced:”Adjournment.” 25 seconds before and after.
As the negotiations progressed, our side was both tit-for-tat, flexible and witty, which made the U.S. representatives increasingly believe that among the representatives of China and North Korea, a huge”invisible figure” was planning and Direct all of this. And this person is the real opponent they have to compete with, but is difficult to defeat.
On July 27, 1953, the arduous truce negotiations in North Korea finally came to an end with the cooperation of military strikes from our volunteers. The negotiation lasted 2 years and 19 days. The two exchange sites were suspended for five times. There were 58 meetings and 733 small meetings. With his superb art and strategy of struggle, Li Kenong smashed the enemy’s conspiracies time and time again, implemented the decisions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, and won the fruits of victory for the Chinese and Korean people.
“The old man has a ambition for thousands of miles.” In his later years, Li Kenong remained on the intelligence and defense front of the Republic until the last moment of his life.