How did the Taliban come into being? How did he quickly grow and control Afghanistan?
The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is a landlocked country in central and western Asia. He is located in the heart of the Eurasian continent. It is not only a key link between Eurasia and the Middle East, but also a necessary place for great powers to move in from the east to the west and to go south and north. In history, Afghanistan established a kingdom in the 18th century, and it was once strong. However, his special geographical location has destined him to be a stage for political wrestling among major powers.
1:From 1973 to September 1979, before The Soviet Union supported the puppet regime in Afghanistan and staged three coups. The Amin government, which came to power after 1979, was also a precarious regime. In order to consolidate its rule, the Amin government purged the more pro-Soviet banner factions in the People’s Democratic Party. Therefore, the former Soviet ruling group believed that its control of Afghanistan was undermined. A serious threat. At the end of September, Brezhnev decided to carry out armed intervention in Afghanistan. On the evening of December 27, 1979, the Soviet Union tore up the”Soviet-Afghanistan Treaty of Friendship, Good-neighborliness and Cooperation” signed in December 1978 with Afghanistan and dispatched nearly 100,000 troops. Invaded Afghanistan and occupied Kabul, launched the fourth coup against Afghanistan, overthrew Amin’s regime, executed Amin’s family, and supported the pro-Soviet leader of the banner, Karl Mayer, came to power and became the General Secretary and Prime Minister of the People’s Democratic Party. .
Two:The armed invasion of the Soviet Union brought the Afghan people A serious disaster seriously threatens the peace of Asia and the world. The Afghan people have established many resistance organizations to fight against the invaders. The vast majority of countries in the world strongly condemn the Soviet Union’s occupation of Afghanistan. The Soviet Union has supported the Afghan communist allies long before the invasion. , And ended the civil war that almost shattered the entire country. However, the Soviets failed to rebuild the law and order in Afghanistan. They also fell into the quagmire of a guerrilla war with a local guerrilla called the”Majhadists”. It is an anti-government organization of Afghan Muslims. It is called”Mujahiddin” which means”jihadists”. Before the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, these people fought against government forces in the form of regular troops. The two sides were evenly matched, but the Soviets arrived. After that, their confrontation with the Soviet army was completely out of balance and had to switch to guerrilla operations.
The Soviet Union’s invasion of Afghanistan made Western countries very dissatisfied. With the support of Western countries’ money and weapons, the”jihadists” effectively defeated the Soviets. After Gorbachev came to power, the Soviet Union’s Afghanistan strategy Deep in the quagmire, the Soviets had no gain on this land. He decided to withdraw troops from Afghanistan. On April 14, 1988, Gorbachev signed the Geneva Agreement. The Soviet Union decided to start on May 15 of that year. The withdrawal was completed within 9 months. In 1989, the Soviet army was completely withdrawn from Afghanistan. In 10 years, the Soviet army suffered more than 30,000 casualties in Afghanistan. After the Soviets left, Afghanistan completely fell into the hands of the”jihadist” warlords. .
The”jihadists” warlords fight with each other to fight for the control of the country. In Afghanistan, the drug trade is a profitable and booming trade. They wage war for the drug trade. The whole country Almost into a total chaos, they grabbed wealth from ordinary Afghan people and extorted travelers to Afghanistan, and high amounts of”road money” continued to flow into their pockets. The drug problem in Afghanistan and the Taliban problem are both key issues of concern to the international community. These two issues have a strong correlation. In fact, the proliferation of drugs in Afghanistan is not so much a consequence of terrorism as the war on terrorism has not been further thorough. s consequence.
3:In this chaotic situation in Afghanistan, the Taliban regime came into being. In the process of the formation of the Taliban, a country played an important role. It is Pakistan, which can be said without dispute. It was Pakistan who trained the backbone of the Taliban. As the Soviet Union was declining and the US diplomacy focused on Eastern Europe’s inadvertent intervention in Afghanistan, Pakistan had its own careful plan.
First, Pakistan really wants to influence Central Asia by controlling Afghanistan Five countries, these countries were once an inseparable part of the Islamic world. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the Islamic power in Central Asia re-emerged. Iran and Pakistan both intend to exert influence here. Pakistan and the five Central Asian countries are both Islamic Sunni The faction has a natural advantage. Iran, which believes in Shiaism, cannot exert a real influence here. If Pakistan can establish trade ties with Central Asia and establish a Muslim Sunni co-prosperity circle commanded by Pakistan Islamabad, he will become The region is sufficient to counter the top powers of India and Iran.
Secondly, control oil transportation, with the largest oil reserves in the world The region is the Gulf region, but for so many years, this region has experienced the Iran-Iraq War and the Gulf War, coupled with the uncertainty of the large amount of oil extraction and transportation safety, the major industrial countries in the world are seeking new oil resources . Except for the Gulf, the Caspian Sea Basin is the second largest oil producing area in the world. Compared to those Arab regions, it is still an unexploited virgin land. The oil reserves of Turkmenistan in Central Asia alone are quite amazing.
There are three feasible schemes for obtaining oil resources in the area from the top of the geography. Scheme one is to build an oil pipeline from Central Asia to Western Europe. Transship the world from major ports in Western Europe. In addition to the high cost of construction, this kind of plan has to go through the long Russian territory and the turbulent Eastern European countries. Countries along the route will take the opportunity to charge high tariffs. It is difficult to obtain world powers when the interests of all parties are uneven. Recognition. The second option is to transport the oil to the coast of the Persian Gulf through the transportation pipeline, and then transfer it through the Persian Gulf. This makes it more difficult for countries led by the United States to accept, because most pipelines will inevitably pass through Iran, the United States and Iran, let alone. The third is to open a pipeline from Turkmenistan to the coast of the Arabian Sea and transport oil from Karachi, a coastal port in Pakistan. The plan was immediately universally recognized by the United States, and Pakistan’s international status will be greatly improved with the implementation of this plan. For Pakistan, the only trouble with this plan is to pass through Afghanistan.
Four:Pakistan’s abacus has been settled long ago, opening up Afghanistan and connecting Central Asia has become the only option to break the impasse in South Asia. During the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, about 3.5 million Afghans went into exile. In the border areas of Pakistan, Pakistan has set up refugee camps for this group of people. Among this group of people, about 220,000 people are uneducated young people. Pakistan has set up a religious school for this group of people, providing education for free, and promoting” In addition to learning religious knowledge, the Wahhabism with the purpose of”Pure Islam” has also been taught many combat skills by this group of young people. There is an older person among this group of students. His name is Mullah Omar. He was originally a small leader of the Afghan”jihadists” and lost an eye during a guerrilla war with the Soviets. , But he did not take it seriously. Instead, he became his glory capital in fighting the invaders. During this period of fighting the Soviet invasion, he and the later famous terrorist tycoon Bin Laden established a deep friendship. After the Soviet Union withdrew, When he was about 30 years old, he also entered a religious school. His excellent leadership and extraordinary growth experience have deeply affected this group of young students who have not been involved in the world. These young people admire him and have more and more followers. In Arabic, students are called”Talib”, and a group of students become”Taliban.” From here, Omar was noticed by Pakistan. Soon after, the two sides got on the line. With Pakistan’s help, the Taliban’s armed forces quickly grew.
5:A transport in Pakistan in September 1994 The car is loaded with goods from southern Afghanistan to Turkmenistan. Pakistan wants to understand the domestic environment of Afghanistan and see if the convoy will reach its destination safely through the warlord’s country. When the convoy reached Kandahar, it was ransacked by a group of local Afghan militants, but this group of militants was then attacked by more than 200 Taliban personnel. The leader of the looters was hanged by the Taliban, and the entire convoy did not lose a single piece of cargo. A large part of the 200-odd people speak Urdu, which is the national language of Pakistan. Thanks to the brave fighting of the Taliban led by Omar, Pakistan has avoided losses. This situation is what Pakistan is happy to see. Therefore, Pakistan has provided the Taliban with more favorable conditions. Within two months, the Taliban had aircraft, tanks, helicopters, artillery, advanced radio communication equipment and sufficient ammunition and money. At the same time, Pakistani officials opened the door to refugee camps, and a large number of recruits joined the Taliban regime. At this time, the Taliban were completely different from each other. Although Pakistan has always denied support for the Taliban, the fact is undeniable. Without the support of the Pakistani government, this unfounded and unknown organization could not have risen rapidly in such a short period of time.
In November 1994, the Taliban decided to enter Kandahar, the second largest city in Afghanistan. They quickly eliminated the guerrillas on the border. In the late autumn of this year, they easily controlled Kandahar. After occupying Kandahar, the Taliban The forces quickly spread to other cities in Afghanistan, occupying Ghazni, Wardak and Logar successively. By September 1995, the Taliban had approached Herat, the third largest city in Afghanistan, and the Taliban controlled 34 provinces in Afghanistan. At the same time, the number of Taliban members has been continuously increasing and they are enthusiastically supported by the Afghan people. At the end of the summer of 1996, the Taliban had become an army with 24,000 members. They marched northward into the capital Kabul, September 12 , They captured the neighboring city of Jalalabad. Two weeks later they captured Kabul. So far, the Taliban have controlled most of Afghanistan.
6:After entering Kabul, he accused former President Najibullah of being responsible for the deaths of tens of thousands of Afghans. The Taliban used extremely cruel methods to kill Najibullah. The Taliban’s atrocities shocked the world. The international community strongly condemned this, but Pakistan and Saudi Arabia acquiesced. The Taliban turned a deaf ear to the attitude of the international community. Pakistan needs the Taliban to serve his global interests. However, the Taliban do not want to be a tool for Pakistan’s game. The Taliban’s own”great cause”, the Taliban will turn Afghanistan into a pure Islamic country based on their own unique interpretation of Islamic law. In the years to come, those who previously supported the Taliban and fought for freedom will see it. Their true colors.
Reference:”No Rules Game:A History of Repeated Interruptions in Afghanistan”