Recently, the United States has banned companies in the lithography machine field from cooperating with China in an attempt to jam the Chinese chip manufacturing industry, causing an uproar. However, it also exposed the shortcomings in the field of lithography machine chip manufacturing in China. During the rapid development of lithography machines in the last century, due to a series of problems such as the cost of technology in the field of lithography machines, China did not catch up with the ranks, causing the gap to be widened. Pull bigger. But the good news recently is that China’s domestically produced 22NM lithography machine ushered in a new breakthrough, and Chinese chips ushered in a new chapter.
light A breakthrough in machine technology cannot be delayed.
Many people will ask when domestic chips can replace imported chips, and why can’t we make high-end chips? This one is due to a late start in my country, and one is caused by the shortcomings of lithography machine technology in the core area of manufacturing chips. We must know that chip manufacturing is inseparable from lithography machines, and lithography technology is also something we must master. We must know that Huawei can make smart products such as mobile phones and TVs. In recent years, it has also made great breakthroughs in CPU processors.
However, the United States banned cooperation between overseas photolithography machine companies and China, and the Chinese chip manufacturing industry was instantly choked and immobile. Although China has broken through the 22NM lithography technology, it still has some advantages compared with the 7NM lithography technology of foreign optical technology giants ASML and TSMC. Distance.
China Challenges and problems in the field of lithography
Previously, China’s lithography machine used 90NM lithography technology, and the gap with the world’s lithography field was very large. It was not an order of magnitude at all. Engraving technology can be said to narrow the gap, but China still faces many problems and challenges. First of all, lithography machine technology began in the United States in the 1950s. After more than half a century of development, various countries have worked together to cooperate and interdisciplinary fields. The difficulty can be imagined. Although our country began to explore in the 1960s and 1970s, it has always lagged behind the world.
If you want to make a breakthrough, you must first understand the current key issues , First of all, companies such as ASML have developed 5NM lithography machine technology. It is reported that AMD, Qualcomm and other companies have already started the 5NM process The process is changing, and the 22NM that the domestic lithography machine has just broken through is obviously a gap. According to reports, the current 5NM technology is about 10 times higher than before. It is worth mentioning that the use of graphene chips can make the process requirements of the lithography machine lower. But the reality is that the breakthrough of graphene chip technology is not much simpler than the lithography machine.
Also, many manufacturing raw materials of domestic lithography machines, such as light sources and lenses, still rely on external imports. Although our Hisilicon chip is at the forefront of the world, there is no lithography machine manufacturer to manufacture it. Unable to make.
China The breakthrough of
Since 2002, the best 90nm lithography technology of Shanghai Microelectronics equipment, to the exciting news of breaking 22nm, is the silent contribution of scientific researchers. With the ban, TSMC will no longer give me Chinese foundry chips. Anything that involves American technology is not allowed to cooperate with China, which also includes SMIC.
Although there are many difficulties now, our country has not stopped one step at a time, and once again broke through and mastered the core technology of the two-stage lithography machine, breaking the technology monopoly of European and American lithography.
In addition, he has been in the Changchun Institute of Optics and Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences for seven years The”1.5m scanning interference field exposure system” developed also breaks the foreign technology blockade. This technology is of great strategic significance. It can not only be applied to lithography machine technology, but also can be applied in many fields such as controlled nuclear fusion and high-energy lasers.
These technologies have made a little breakthrough from scratch. It means that China’s breakthrough in the field of lithography is not accomplished overnight. It is a long way to go, but one day my country’s chip manufacturing industry will come up with our own Your own proud answer.