On April 20, 1960, Zhou Enlai held talks with Nehru during his visit to India.
In 1962, Indian troops continued to erode our territory at the Sino-Indian border. In order to defend national sovereignty, our country has carried out a border self-defense counterattack operation against India under the circumstances of unbearable and retreat. The battlefield on the Eastern Front was fought in the Himalayas on the snowy plateau on the roof of the world. The war lasted two months and fought a total of two battles. , And finally ended in the disastrous defeat of the Indian Army. We won the great victory of the second foreign resistance after the founding of the People’s Republic of China.
Back then, I was a soldier of the 2nd Battalion and 4th Company of the 32nd Regiment of the 11th Division of the Army. I personally participated in this battle to defend the frontiers of the motherland. The bits and pieces of the battlefield are still vivid and fresh in the memory.
The People’s Liberation Army enters Tibet
Walking on the glacier
The air in the Himalayas is thin, the climate is cold, and the four seasons are like winter. The people wear old sheepskin leather jackets all year round, and the soldiers are all year round. The cotton-padded jacket does not leave the body. There were many rivers during the march in the self-defense counterattack against India, and there were no bridges on the rivers. What the soldiers fear most is going to the glacier. The river water in the Himalayas is made up of glaciers and snow water. It is icy and bitter, and the body will be completely numb after being soaked in the river for only 3 minutes. Sometimes when the river is too deep, all the weapons and ammunition, dry quilt, cooking utensils, and tools on the body have to be carried on the shoulders, or hung on the neck, or put on the head, with both hands supporting them down into the water. When wading to the center of the river, you will encounter a large ice block. If you can’t avoid being knocked down by the large ice block, you will lose consciousness for a moment and freeze in the water. If the ice water overflowed above the belly button, the pain of water shock would be unbearable. Once, when a company soldier crossed the river, when he wandered to the center of the river, a comrade smiled bitterly and shouted at me:”Lin Shan, what does it mean to serve the people? This is to serve the people!” His shout really made me see it firsthand. The true meaning of”serving the people”.
October 20, 1962, next to Manidui in Kenzemani, TibetBorder Guard The Indian army was searched out of the building and captured.
A night in the snow nest
October 10, 1962, after the superiors issued a battle order for self-defense against India, we immediately drove from Shigatse, Tibet to the Himalayas at an altitude of 6,700 meters The Indian border has counterattacked the Indian army, which is constantly eroding our territory.
The first battle against India was on our Kejielang pasture. A reinforced brigade of the Indian army is separated from our border guards by a river. The counterattack time is set at 8 o’clock on October 20. The battle is about to start, and the soldiers are gearing up and morale is high, shouting”Our territory cannot be violated, and we must fight every inch of our land.” They all expressed that they must be brave to charge and defend the frontiers of the motherland with their own flesh and blood!
At 8 o’clock, I saw 3 signal flares in the air, and then 10,000 artillery shells shot towards the Indian army position. Loud. Thirty minutes after our army shelled, the infantry immediately switched to the offensive. Our regiment is responsible for attracting the firepower of the Indian army so that the fraternal troops on both sides can enter the designated place smoothly. The enemy fired back artillery fire and was attacked by hundreds of shells around my company. We climbed down for a while, stood behind the tree for a while, or circled the tree to avoid shrapnel flying in the air. In the course of the offensive, the Indian army was beaten by our army, and captured in groups. We took advantage of the victory and charge and kept chasing the fled Indian army to the top of the mountain. At 4 o’clock in the afternoon, we received an order to gather the group fingers down the mountain. When we returned to the middle of the mountain, the sky was already dark, and we couldn’t see our fingers. We encountered another person in deep ice and snow. Our company waded through the snow one by one. From time to time, people will fall into the ravine. If you shout”Help”, the remaining enemies will use light and heavy machine guns to shoot at the place where the sound is heard. Therefore, in this case, they can only save themselves. The company was unable to continue down the mountain, and could only wait until dawn.
Before the war, everyone took off their cotton-padded clothes and fur shoes, wearing a single coat, a cotton cap, and single-sided Jiefang shoes on their feet in order to dress lightly. That night, the soldiers used their bodies to squeeze out a space for people to stand in the deep ice and snow. Everyone reminds each other and supervises each other. You keep kicking me and I punch you. Only if you keep moving, you will not freeze your body. You can’t take a nap when you are sleepy. If this is not the case, the consequences will be unimaginable. If your hands and feet are frozen, you will have to amputate your limbs. If you can’t wake up from a nap, you may die. The only warm clothing is a cotton cap. The soldiers put the cotton cap on their shoes, put them on their knees, and put them on their heads… That night, every minute passed was like a day. That’s long. After a night of sin, we finally got through to dawn and we went down the mountain smoothly. The first battle of the counterattack against India went on for a whole day. We fought a big victory with absolute superiority and the entire frontier Indian army was wiped out.
On October 22, 1962, the Indian army burned its ammunition and fled south, and our army pursued it with victory.
A letter from the family is still unresolved
The Middle India counterattack entered the second battle. At the very moment when the two armies were facing each other, I did not expect that I received several letters from relatives and friends in the trenches. Letters, one of them is from my father. The content of the letter is that there is little food in the Mainland, life is difficult, not enough to eat every day, plus old age and sickness, let me send some money back. When I saw the time of writing, it was 10 months. My goodness! What’s the situation with the old father? Suddenly, my thoughts were so full, tears gushing out like a spring. I blamed my father:no late, no early, why are you asking me for money at this time? This is the battlefield, why don’t you consider your son’s situation! This is a big problem for me.
But then again, my father has never asked me for money. This must be because my father is in desperation and helpless. In all fairness, it is very common for my father to write letters and ask for money. My mother passed away since I was a child. Is it easy for my father to pull up our brothers? My father’s kindness in nurturing is greater than heaven. If I die on the battlefield, it is difficult to repay my father’s kindness. . Sheep have the grace of kneeling and breastfeeding, and birds have the feeling of feeding back. But at this moment in the flames of war, my father’s request for this point, I really can’t repay it. When I was in a daze, the Chief Secretary walked up to me and said,”Lin Shan, people are happy to receive the letter, but you have two tears, what happened at home?” I was too uncomfortable to answer, and handed him the letter. After the chief secretary read the letter, he smiled and said,”Is your old father asking for some money? It’s not a big deal!” I said,”Father won’t want it late, but it won’t happen long ago, but he wants it now. This is on the battlefield, the battlefield. It’s just killing the field. If you encounter this situation, how would you feel?” The Chief Secretary said:”Yes, yes, yes, I understand.” He comforted me”Life is a dilemma of loyalty and filial piety.” I said,”Comrade Chief Secretary, what do you think? It makes sense. This is called She Xiaojia, and protect everyone. I have only one heart now. Men have tears and do not flick, but swear to defend the motherland. With great loyalty, filial piety is among them.” I said to the chief secretary:”Please One thing about you, this letter is kept at your place. If I am no longer there, please send back all the money in my passbook to my father. It is still more than 40 yuan. If I live, I will handle the letter. .”
In 1965, I was demobilized and went home. The first night I slept in the same room with my father. The old people asked questions about the long and short questions. They talked about the difficult period of life in 1962 and said:”The family members were so hungry that they would die. I wrote to ask you to send me some money, which is a relief. But it took a year after the incident. To the dozens of dollars you sent back.” When I heard it, I felt how urgent my father’s letter was. This letter will be a family letter that will accompany me to the end of my life, and it hooks up the scene of receiving the letter on the battlefield at that time. I told my father the situation truthfully, and the old father said,”Oh, my baby, so you were in a war at the time?! I don’t know at all. It’s better to come back alive now! It’s better than anything!” Fortunately, the people’s government organized the masses to overcome the difficulties. The government issued relief food in time, so that the masses quickly passed through the difficulties. At that time, I should not ask you for money, the country and family affairs, the country is the biggest.” My filial piety to my father is not Exhausted, but got the father’s forgiveness, this is the broad-mindedness of parents for their children.
On November 19, 1962, the Tibetan border troops pursued the Indian army in depth on the east line of Zongluo, Shenge.
Flyers on the Bailey Trail
On November 10th, the second battle of the Self-Defense Counterattack began. Our division departed from Tawang and was charged with the task of encircling the Indian Army of Dejang. The so-called”Pele Trail” that we had to walk at that time was actually a sheep-gut trail along the Himalayas that a large army had never walked. It is rugged, steep and dangerous, with dense virgin forests and crisscross rivers. At that time, each soldier carried a weight of more than 70 kilograms. In addition to his own weapons and equipment, 10-day dry food, cooking utensils, and clothing, he also helped the fire platoon carry 3 rockets and 3 rounds of 60 shells.
Along the way, the horse is non-stop, day and night, every second counts. During the march, no food was cooked, no water was ever boiled. I haven’t eaten a mouthful of hot rice or drank a mouthful of boiling water for 7 days and 5 nights. Every mountain and mountain, every river crosses the river, if it encounters a swamp, it will crawl and crawl, and all the officers and soldiers are exhausted and unbearable. During the march, whether it is day or night, when the speed of the mountain climbing march is slow, even if it is only a minute, he will seize the time to stand up and take a nap. When encountering a cliff two to three feet high, dig up the foot sockets, pull one by one, and step on one shoulder. It’s a pity that the army horses, 7 days and 5 nights, many horses fell to death under the cliff. The soldiers unloaded the horses and used their bodies to push and pull the horses one by one up the mountain. The horses that can come are hero horses. The soldiers are hungry, so they can eat fried noodles while walking, and grab the snow on the side of the road while walking, so that they can moisten their throats so that they can swallow the fried noodles. Interestingly, a soldier sucked the cold water in the middle of the night and made creaking noises from time to time. A soldier asked curiously:”Where did the boiling water you drink come from?” He replied,”You drink cold water, not boiled water. Because the water is cold, I feel cold, so I licked it!” The inquiring soldier smiled bitterly. Say:”Just say, you are not a god, and you will change to boiling water?”
One time when marching up a steep slope, the soldier behind leaned on the slope for 5 or 6 minutes and fell asleep, and turned over halfway. When he woke up, the troops had already advanced. He remembered to face the forward direction when he slept, and he forgot to turn over halfway, and he drove the troops in the direction in a daze. After walking for more than 10 minutes, I stepped on the stone when I encountered the small river and slipped a bit. Then I became sober:This is the road I have walked just now! Then he turned to chase the troops quickly.
In a roundabout way, there was a water cut for 42 hours. Each soldier has a dry mouth, his body sweat is gone, his voice is hoarse. The commanders just gritted their teeth and encouraged each other. Everyone’s clothes were soaked in sweat and then warmed and dried, and then soaked again after warming. The seams of the clothes were full of lice. Due to the emergency march, no one had time to catch them. Because of the short time and sweating, everyone couldn’t straighten their tired waist, and couldn’t lift their head. The blood blisters on the feet broke one by one and gave birth to another. It was really miserable. Some soldiers grumbled and said:”This battle did not kill people, 7 days and 5 nights can make people tired!”
The 33rd regiment opened the way in front of me, the division followed closely, and the 32nd regiment behind. . The army rushed to clear the Indian strongholds, and finally completed the interspersed task of the Pele Trail in 7 days and 5 nights, arrived at the designated location 50 minutes earlier, and created another miracle in the history of wars between China and foreign countries.
On November 19, 1962, the Chinese troops on Loma East Highway.
After the war, our 50-year-old teacher Yu Zhiquan said:”For 7 days and 5 nights, the suffering you have suffered is the greatest suffering in the world, and the sin you have suffered is a sin that has never been suffered in the world. Bailey The trail, we didn’t come out, but moved it out with ass, ass and ass. The difficulty is no less than the 25,000-mile Long March of the Red Army. People who have not served as soldiers will definitely not know how to fight as soldiers. Hardship. But then again, the country maintains its troops for a thousand days, and it uses them for a while. The country is in trouble, and everyone is responsible. This is the need for fighting, defending the motherland and defending the frontiers. The central government requires our participating troops to carry forward the glorious tradition of our army. , We must fight our national prestige and fight our military prestige. We are full of joy in suffering and endless joy. Before midnight on November 18, we completed the roundabout task 50 minutes ahead of schedule, quickly entered the position, and began to implement the Sino-Indian border self-defense counterattack. the second phase of the war fighting mission
original title:”dragon” magazine:Eastern Front memory – Sino-Indian border war of self-defense
(author:Ren Lin Shan, Shaanxi Fuping He was born in 1938. He joined the army in 1961 and served as a soldier, company clerk, and chief of department. He was demobilized in April 1965 and retired in 1995.)