Part of the nurses and children in Datong Kindergarten in 1931. In the second row are Mao Anying, Mao Anying, and Mao Anlong, respectively.
In October 1930, after the death of Martyr Yang Kaihui, the three brothers Mao Anying, Mao Anqing, and Mao Anlong went to Shanghai to seek refuge. Soon after, Mao Anlong became ill. After passing away, Mao Anying and Mao Anying were adopted by Pastor Dong Jianwu and lived a hard life for several years.
Dong Jianwu is an underground member of the Communist Party of China, graduated from Shanghai St. John’s University, and classmates Song Ziwen. In January 1935, entrusted by Soong Ching Ling, she took a secret letter from the Kuomintang Central Committee seeking peace talks with the Communist Party of China, and personally sent it to northern Shaanxi. The road was blocked due to heavy snow, so I had to ask Zhang Xueliang helped. Zhang Xueliang personally drove him to the airport. The American pilot drove him to Yan’an by Zhang Xueliang’s landline. Since then, the two have forged a deep friendship.
In the first half of 1936, Dong Jianwu was entrusted by Soong Ching-ling to escort American journalist Snow and doctor Ma Haide to the northern Shaanxi Soviet area, and came to Xi’an again. After the task was completed, Dong Jianwu wanted to return to Shanghai as soon as possible, but Zhang Xueliang asked him to spend a few days in Xi’an. Once, Zhang Xueliang invited Dong Jianwu to eat, and Dong Jianwu found that Zhang Xueliang had an unpleasant color on his noodles and he ate very little, so he asked why. It turned out that Zhang Xueliang had a pair of vases from the Ming Dynasty, which he loved very much. Miss Zhao Si accidentally broke one and he was very distressed.
After this conversation, Dong Jianwu gave a report to the representative of the Chinese Communist Party in the Northeast Army Liu Ding and told him Zhang Xueliang and his wife like porcelain very much. In order to connect with each other, they can buy a few pieces of porcelain for him. Liu Ding also agreed. So Dong Jianwu went to Nanyuanmen to find an antique shop. The owner of the shop often went to Shanghai to buy goods. He was very familiar with Dong Jianwu. Dong Jianwu bought a set of Song Dynasty colored porcelain from him and sent it to Zhang Xueliang. If you love it, you have to buy it with a lot of money. Dong Jianwu was reluctant to resign.
Later, Zhang Xueliang heard that Dong Jianwu was going back to Shanghai, and Zhang set up a family banquet as farewell. During the banquet, Zhang asked what he wanted. Dong said:”The deputy seat can stop the civil war and fight against Japan unanimously. I am willing to be enough!” Zhang nodded and said yes. But he asked again, is there any personal request? It turned out that Zhang was still upset about the gift of antiques. Seeing Zhang Xueliang’s sincerity, Dong Jianwu asked:“I have three elementary school students, two of them are revolutionary children I raised, and one is my son. If they are taken care of, I hope they can be sent to the Soviet Union to study in preparation for future work. Country service.” Zhang Xueliang smiled and promised to follow suit.
Not long after Dong Jianwu returned to Shanghai, one morning, he suddenly received a call from Li Du to inform Zhang Xueliang that he had arrived in Shanghai. Dong Jianwu was overjoyed after hearing this. Zhang told him to fulfill the promise he had made in Xi’an and asked him to meet in a cafe the next morning. Zhang Xueliang came to Nanjing for a meeting. After the meeting, he came to Shanghai by car, mainly to visit his old friend Li Du. Li Du was an old subordinate of Zhang Xueliang. He lived at No. 3, Lane 9, Baoji Road (now Baoqing Road, Huaihai West Road), Shanghai. Although he was in the prosperous Shanghai, he always missed the suffering fathers in the white mountains and black waters. He has sent people to the northeast to organize anti-Japanese activities on many occasions, and he himself has always asked to go to the Soviet Union, gather the old parts living in the Far East, and return to the northeast to continue the anti-Japanese war. The purpose of Zhang Xueliang’s visit was to try to help him go abroad as soon as possible, and to ask him to take his three children to the Soviet Union. Li Du happily agreed to Zhang Xueliang’s request.
After receiving Zhang Xueliang’s call, Dong Jianwu thought it was a major event to send Mao Zedong’s two children abroad. He dared not decide without authorization, and immediately reported to the underground party organization and asked how to handle it. Organizationally, it was decided to send Liu Zhonghua (single-line contact with Dong Jianwu and former director of the Beijing Municipal Bureau of Landscape Architecture after the founding of the People’s Republic of China) to go with him to meet Zhang Xueliang .
Early the next morning, Dong and Liu came to a French cafe on Columbia Road in the western suburbs of Shanghai. The cafe had just opened, and the waiter led them into a secluded single room. They ordered two cups of coffee and drank slowly. After a while, Zhang Xueliang and Li Du walked in. Zhang Xueliang introduced to them:”Come! Get to know, this is General Li Du, the commander of the Jilin Anti-Japanese Self-Defense Army.” Dong Jianwu also introduced Liu Zhonghua to them. After the four of them sat down, Zhang Xueliang said, “Mr. Dong, I’m very sorry that I came to Shanghai in secret this time. It’s inconvenient to invite you to the Humble House. Recently, General Li Du is going to the Soviet Union to visit the Soviet Union. The Anti-Japanese Volunteers who retreated to the Soviet Union were reorganized and brought back to China. I would like to take this opportunity to ask General Li to bring your three children to the Soviet Union. Do you think it is appropriate to do this?”
To Zhang Xueliang Dong Jianwu and Liu Zhonghua agreed to the arrangement, and Zhang Xueliang said:”I am responsible for the expenses of the three children going abroad.” Then a check of 100,000 francs was given to Dong Jianwu, asking him to send the children to Li Du’s home as soon as possible. , Make preparations for going abroad quickly. After the matter was settled, Zhang Xueliang immediately stood up and said, “It’s not convenient to stay here for a long time.” So the four people hurriedly left. Zhang Xueliang worried about the safety of Dong Jianwu and others. He personally drove them to the French Park by car, watching Dong Jianwu and Liu Zhonghua. He entered the park safely before he drove away.
After Dong Jianwu went back, he immediately made preparations for the children’s country, bought three new small suitcases, and bought a lot of daily necessities for travel. Although it was summer, he gave them back to each of them. Made a small gray padded jacket, and each person bought two sets of navy clothing, leather shoes, and shirts. Soon, Dong Jianwu took Mao Anying, Mao Anqing, and Dong Shouqi to Li Du’s house by car. Li Du lived in a small Danish-style foreign house. He prepared a bedroom for the three children and placed a spacious Simmons. He also asked his adjutant to teach them how to eat Western food and how to live abroad.
After studying the Shanghai Underground Party, it was decided to send Yang Chengfang and Li Du, who worked for the Shanghai Red Trade Union, to go abroad together and escort the three children along the way.
At the beginning of July 1936, General Li Du’s name was Wang Yuanhua, and through various relationships he went through the procedures for going abroad. With his three”sons”, he boarded the French cruise ship Contresor and went to the Soviet Union for investigation. . Accompanied by his adjutant, secretary, translator, a teacher from Zhang Xueliang, Yang Chengfang and three children, a total of 9 people. The ship passed Hong Kong, Saigon, Mumbai, the Suez Canal, and the Mediterranean and arrived in Marseille, France in early August.
Photos of Li Du and his three children abroad
On the voyage, such an incident happened. Dong Shouqi recalled:“One or two days before arriving at the port of Marseille, one incident aroused our curiosity. That night, a few adults who were accompanying them suddenly got busy, first drew the curtains and locked the cabin door. , And then turned over the box, turned out the many small boxes pressed on the bottom of the box, and secretly threw it into the sea from the window. This time, we were shocked by the three children. What is this? Kishiying is more clever, he took advantage of it. When the adults were not paying attention, they opened the paper box. It turned out that it was full of shiny pistol bullets. So Kishi and I got excited, and helped the adults throw the paper box outside. When the boat arrived in Marseille, the adults called us three Perform a special task, which is to put a small pistol and a few boxes of ammunition in each pocket, and tell us to walk twice in the cabin. And teach us not to panic when someone checks, we are all one by one Nodded. Although the adults arranged very thoughtfully, we were still pounding when we got off the boat, for fear of being searched out. Fortunately, the inspection was not strict. It was just a casual check on the passports of our three children. It was successfully released.”
After they arrived in Marseille, they took the train to Paris. After staying in an apartment, he immediately went to the Soviet consulate in France to apply for a visa, but he was refused. It turns out that the actions of Li Du and others were detected by Japanese intelligence personnel, and Japan protested to the Soviet Union. At that time, the international situation was very tense. The Soviet government refused to offend Japan, so it refused visas. Some people also said:The Soviet Union is now undergoing a large-scale suppression of counter-revolutionaries, so foreigners are denied entry. Li Du and others stayed in Paris for several months, and the three children took the time to learn foreign languages. Later, Yang Chengfang found the editorial office of Salvation Times (a newspaper published by the CCP in Paris) and asked them to try to inform the CCP delegation to the Communist International that Mao Zedong’s two children had arrived in Paris and asked the Soviet government to issue visas early. Soon, the Soviet consulate in France sent a notice agreeing that the Mao brothers entered the country and sent visas, but Dong Shouqi, Li Du and others were not allowed to enter. At this time, the Xi’an Incident occurred in China, and Li Du and others had no intention of staying abroad, so they had to return to Shanghai.
The Mao brothers and Dong Shouqi have lived together in Paris for more than four months and often fight with foreign children. Dong Shouqi recalled:“After living in the apartment for a long time, I gradually became familiar with the personnel there. The maids who served as hospitality were kind to us. Sometimes the three of us ran to help them with something. The owner is a woman, and there are three A son, a daughter, but she has never met her husband. Her three sons are slightly older than us. They are gorgeously dressed, have a rough personality, and behave arrogantly. Once we were going to the entertainment room next to the restaurant, they deliberately provoked, Not letting us in, we were angry and rushed in. They couldn’t stop them, so they stretched out their fists and assumed a posture to beat us. We didn’t show weakness, An Ying shouted:’Foreigners are going to bully us. Watch out!”They bounced and played Western-style”Puke Xin”, and we fought back with Chinese-style”Kai Da”. After about a few minutes of fierce fighting, the tables and chairs turned over, and the toys were all messed up. . Anqing suffered a bit because of his small size and strength, but the other one was knocked to the ground by us, and shouted. The next day, they attacked again, and there were many chestnut trees planted in the garden. They were all fallen chestnuts. They picked them up and threw them at us, trying to catch them by surprise. In fact, we were wary of them. We picked up the wicker chairs in the garden as’shields’, covered our heads and upper bodies, and then picked them up again. Chestnut rushed up. They had to hold their heads and flee, and went away in a big defeat. It is strange to say,’Don’t fight and don’t know each other’. After these two battles, they became polite to us, took the initiative to shake hands with us, and took their beloved toys. , Little books for us to appreciate. When we moved to live elsewhere, they also presented us with gifts, lined up to send us off.”
Mao Anying and Mao Anying were sent to the Soviet consulate in France, where they met When I arrived, I came to Paris to pick up their Kang Sheng. In early 1937, Kang Sheng escorted the Mao brothers to Moscow, and immediately entered the Moninore Second International Children’s Home in the western suburbs. Mao Anying was named Sergey, his nickname was Sergey, and Mao Anying was named Alexander. Mao Anying was 14 years old and Mao Anying was 12 years old. (The photos”Dong Jianwu” and”Passport for Abroad” in this article are provided by Huang Daxiao)