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Chapter 4058:William Gustrov, a dream cruise to death

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Public welfare sharing-type popular science education articles, please contact the author (WeChat Jumboheritagelist or Huang_Jumbo) for reprinting in any form

Speaking of shipwrecks, everyone will immediately think of the Titanic crashing into an iceberg that killed more than 1,500 people, but in fact, the Titanic is just more familiar. The number of deaths, the sinking of the Titanic, simply did not squeeze into the top ten of the world’s largest disasters.

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The shipwreck I am going to talk about now has more than six times the number of deaths than the Titanic, and it is also a death in the history of human navigation The most numerous and tragic shipwreck:the sinking of the William Gustrov.

Some people in the country have concluded that it is a Russia with a history of drinking and calling bad women The officer fired three torpedoes and sent nearly 10,000 German civilians into the icy Baltic Sea bottom.

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The Wilhelm Gustrov was a luxury German cruise ship during World War II. It was launched on May 5, 1937, 208.5 meters long, 23.59 meters wide, 56 meters high, 15.5 nautical miles per hour, and 25,484 tons gross. It was the largest cruise ship in the world at that time. In order to reach the destination as soon as possible, the captain of the William Gustloff, Frederick Petersen, decided to take a risk on a route, even though he knew he might be attacked by a Russian submarine. In that sea area, the Russian Navy’s”Russian 13″ submarine has been patrolling for 20 days.

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The captain of the 13th submarine in Russia is this Colonel Alexander Ivanovich Marisko, and he has a reputation Chaos is a gambler, drunkard, and thug known to the Navy. Before encountering the &34;William Gustlov&34;, he had just been punished for drunkenness and misconduct, and now he is eager to make up for it.

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Thirteen Russian submarines evaded the two escorted torpedo boats and were on the left of the &34; William Gustrov&34; Ahead, Marisco ordered the launch of four torpedoes at the huge ship. Although one torpedo was stuck and failed to launch successfully, this did not change the result—all three torpedoes hit the target, and the”William Gustrov” disappeared into the sea after struggling for 50 minutes.

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January 30, 1945, the Russian Navy’s submarine Russell No. 13 sank&34; William Gustloff&34 The cruise ship; caused one of the heaviest casualties in human history. Tens of thousands of German people were innocently done as cannon fodder in the German war.

Due to the very chaotic management at the time, the number of people killed varied from 5348 to 9985. Wait, this is really a tragic event. At the same time, this was also the biggest result of the Russian submarine force during World War II, and in fact it was the biggest result of the entire Russian Navy in World War II, but it was not victorious and inhumane, because they attacked most of the civilians.

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The Russian Death 13 submarine is a Russian Death class medium submarine equipped by the Russian Navy before the war. It is 78 meters long and has a water displacement of 780 tons. The underwater displacement is 1,070 tons, the maximum water speed is 19.5 knots, and the maximum underwater speed is 9 knots. The main weapons are 6 533mm torpedo tubes (front 4 and rear 2), equipped with 12 torpedoes, and 1 100mm deck gun and 1 45mm naval gun. On February 10, Marisco commanded the Russian submarine to kill the 13th submarine and sank the luxury cruise ship”General von Steuben” which was converted into a German troop carrier.

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It is said that there were more than 5,200 passengers on the ship, and only 659 survived. After the 13th Russian submarine was decommissioned, its command enclosure was preserved, becoming an important historical witness. The 13 submarines that died in Russia quickly left the waters after they succeeded, and the two torpedo boats escorted rescued 472 and 564 people respectively. Due to the very low sea temperature at that time, many people who fell into the water lost their lives because of the temperature loss. . .

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Blomfors (formerly known as Blohm & Voss) is a German shipbuilding and engineering company, now part of Thyssen Krupp Marine System. ThyssenKrupp announced in December 2011 that it had sold Blom-Forth’s civil shipbuilding division to the British independent investment fund management company (STAR ​​Capital Partners), and is awaiting regulatory approval. The company produced aircraft through the Hamburg Aircraft Manufacturing Company before and during the Second World War.

Blom-Forth was commissioned by Hermann on April 5, 1877. Blom and Ernst Foss formed a partnership. They established a 15,000-square-meter shipyard in Kuhwerder near Hamburg with a frontage of 250 meters and three anchorage points, two of which can be used for 100-meter ships. The brand of Blom-Foss is a dark blue rectangle with rounded corners with the words”Blohm & Voss” inside. It was changed to”Blohm Voss” after 1955.

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Blomfors has more than 135 years of experience in shipbuilding and other large machinery production. Although its factory buildings were almost completely destroyed during World War II, the current Blomfoss not only built warships for the German Navy, but also exported them to foreign countries. In addition, Blom-Force also manufactures drilling tools and boats for commercial users.

Blomfors is now a subsidiary of ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems .

In 1933, the Cui Cui Party obtained power and carried out activities in violation of the Treaty of Versailles. The company is being managed by the brothers Rudolf and Walter Blom. The military expansion plan of the Yangtze Mansion provided a large amount of funds to make the company out of the original financial crisis. Blom-Foss also designed and manufactured aircraft for Germany before it specialized in building ships. Before the war, it was Lufthansa, and later it was the Luftwaffe.

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Blom-Forth’s aviation department is called Hamburg Aircraft Manufacturing Company, so the name of its first aircraft is”Ha” At the beginning, but after 1937, the department was renamed Blom & Forth Shipyard Aircraft Production Department, and the name of the aircraft was also changed to”BV”. Of note are the larger flying boats, including the Bv 238.

From July 1944 to April 1945, used by Blom-Fors The prisoners in Hamburg Neuingammer concentration camp worked for it. At present, Blom-Forth has been donating to the Forced Workers Compensation Fund.

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Blom-Foss is the manufacturer of the William Gustrov.

70 years ago, the giant German passenger ship”Wilhelm Gustrov” ( Wilhelm Gustloff) was sunk by a Russian submarine in the Baltic Sea, and more than nine thousand people drowned. To this day, not many people understand the worst maritime tragedy in this history.

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On January 30, 1945, Hitler gave a radio address to the German masses. It’s 9 o’clock in the evening. The restaurant on the”William Gustlov” was crowded. Hitt’s voice came from the horn. However, the refugees from Pomorie, East, and West Prussia on the giant ship rushed to and from Turkmenistan, and did not care about what the head of state was saying. They have only one idea:escape. However, among the 10,000 people, including navy officers and soldiers, who are mostly women and children on board, only a few are expected to escape.

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In the end, a total of 1252 people survived the last voyage of the Gustrov, and more than 9,000 died. Earlier, the”William Gustrov” was attacked by three Russian submarine mines. It took less than an hour from the explosion to the sinking of the giant ship. The temperature that day was minus 18 degrees. Hope of survival is almost zero.

Gotenhafen near Danzig,-Gustloff The departure place of the last voyage of the ship. In January 1945, less than a few months before the end of the war, more than 100,000 German civilians poured into this seaport town from the east. The Russian rogue army is on its way day and night, closely behind. The news that Nemmersdorf became the first village in the empire to fall into the hands of the Russians spread wildly. The rogue army retaliated against German crimes in a brutal manner. At this moment, the Navy is the only hope for life.

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In the last few months of the war, among the many ships that transported wounded, soldiers, and civilians from Gotenhafen to the West The shadow of Gustrov. The ship with a length of 208 meters is not the largest, but the most famous. It is a very proud steamship. In 1937, Hitler personally presided over the launching ceremony of the ship.

The ship is named after a senior official who was assassinated and killed in 1936. It was in the 1930s. A dream ship, a dream cruise ship known to women and children. Some refugees have spent the most wonderful holidays on this cruise ship as meritorious members — passing the Norwegian coast or cruising in the Mediterranean. However, on January 30, 1945, they spent the last few hours of their lives on the steamship that was converted into a warship.

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The escape via the Baltic Sea is the most special chapter of the Second World War. According to calculations by naval history experts, a total of about 2.5 million people were rescued from eastern Germany via this sea area. This unprecedented achievement has even been recognized by war opponents. For example, a book on this subject has impressively used the subtitle:”The Greatest Merit of the Navy.”

The feat of this large-scale rescue operation at sea was first recorded in only a few days On the body of Karl Dönitz (Karl Dönitz), the admiral of the Navy, the heir of Hitler.

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In fact, Dunnitz had to take advantage of Hitler’s German preparations for several years, and once needed, he would pass through the Baltic Sea. , To safely mobilize the”Kurland-Armee” with a scale of 600,000 people. At the beginning of 1945, the military situation changed drastically. The strategic shift of the German army was meaningless. Instead, it was to rescue civilians. In this way, Dunnitz was able to use the original military infrastructure to evacuate refugees in eastern Germany, which became the key to large-scale rescue.

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In countless Baltic rescue and evacuation voyages, a total of about 30,000 people were killed, except for the”William Gustlov” In addition, several other large passenger ships such as the”Goya” and”Cap Arcona” were sunk by war opponents. The”Cape Econa” was sunk by a British bomber. The ship was carrying prisoners in the concentration camp.

It now appears that the three wrong decisions are really regrettable.

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Navy experts believe that the tragedy of the Gustrov could have been avoided. The tragedy happened in the end, mainly related to three wrong decisions:First, only a small minesweeper was sent to escort. Secondly, because of the speculation that there are mines in the waters near the coastline, the sea route was chosen. Thirdly, as the Gustloff has been suspended for 4 years, Cap Arcona, out of cautious considerations, asked for 12 knots. Instead of sailing at 15 knots. The sum of all this constitutes the death sentence for the ship and the crew.

Military experts estimate that if there are escorts, walking along shallow coastal routes, As well as speeding up, the Russian submarine would not have had a chance to sink the Gustrov.

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Today, decades after the tragedy, there are still many mysteries surrounding the Gustrov. Three hours before the first lightning strike, a mysterious wireless telegram was suddenly received on the ship’s command trestle. Is this a sabotage conspiracy? In any case, this wireless telegraph warned the Gustrov to watch out for multiple minesweepers, saying they were approaching oncoming. In order to prevent a collision in the sea with heavy snow and low visibility, the captain ordered the light showing the position of the ship to be turned on. The lights were on for an hour and a half, but there was no shadow of the minesweeper at all. As a result, the Gustrov was like an object placed on the display plate, and became a part of the Russian submarine”Russian 13″.

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There is a theory that makes sense. According to this theory, the telegram was sent by the so-called”anti-strike” German prisoners of war, and the Russians parachuted them behind the German front. For Heinz Schön, this is a creepy theory. He was 18 years old and worked as a trainee sergeant on the Gustloff. As one of the few survivors of this huge tragedy, Schoen did not regard the sinking of the Gustrov as a war crime. He pointed out that there were soldiers on board, the hull was painted in gray camouflage, and it was lightly armed. The laws of war allow attacks on the ship.

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The Wilhelm Gustaf is a German cruise ship, operated by the Brom and Worth Dock (Blohm Voss), her name comes from William Gustav, the leader of the Swiss branch of the Zizism Party, and was launched on May 5, 1937. At the end of World War II, the ship was used to carry Germans (including civilians and a few officers and soldiers) trapped in East Prussia by the Russian rogue army. Finally, on January 30, 1945, it was sunk by a Russian submarine launched three torpedoes in the Baltic Sea.

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The estimated number of victims ranged from 5,300 to 9,931, exceeding the number of casualties on the Titanic by six times, becoming the number of victims in history The most shipwreck. Coincidentally, that day was William Gustrov’s 50th birthday, and it was also the 12th anniversary of Hitler’s coming to power. This ship was originally used as a cruise ship for the”Strength from Joy” organization (Kraft durch Freude, abbreviated as KdF, a trade union organization dedicated to providing cultural and recreational activities for workers), with a value of approximately 25 million Reichmarks (RM) . Until 1939, the William Gustrov was the flagship of the KdF mail fleet.

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In September 1939, Germany began to invade European countries, and the Wilhelm Gustrov was conscripted by the army. Medical ship until November 1940. Later, the ship was used as a troop carrier to carry trainee crews of U-submarines to Gotenhafen Port on the Bay of Danzig (now Bay of Gdańsk, Poland) in East Prussia. , Now training in Gdynia, Poland.

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The final mission of the Wilhelm Gustrov is to evacuate German civilians, wounded and seamen from Gdynia through the Baltic Sea Returning to the port of Kiel, Germany, the total number of registered seafarers and passengers on board was 6,050, but this figure did not count the thousands of refugees who were not recorded. Heinz Schenen conducted in-depth research on the sinking of the William Gustrov in the 1980s and 1990s, and concluded that 173 crew members (Naval Armed Auxiliary Unit) and 918 second submarine training were carried on board at that time. Division (2.Unterseeboot-Lehrdivision) noncommissioned officers and soldiers, 373 female naval medical personnel, 162 severely injured soldiers and 8,956 refugees (of which only 4,424 refugees have records), a total of 10,582 people.

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This ship was originally designed to carry less than 2,000 people, but after making full use of all the public space and amusement facilities on the ship, Can carry the above-mentioned number of people for short voyages. That is to say, because of the limited space, there can not be too many life-saving equipment on board, and the number is only enough for more than half of the people.

On the morning of January 30, 1945, the William Gustrov left The port of Gdynia, accompanied by the Hansa cruise ship (Hansa) full of refugees and two torpedo boats. The Hansa and one of the torpedo boats failed to continue sailing. Only the other torpedo boat, the Lowe, was responsible for escorting the William Gustlov. There were four captains on the ship, three of whom were civil aviation captains and one was navy captain. They had different opinions on deciding the route.

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Lieutenant Commander Wilhelm Zahn (Lieutenant Commander Wilhelm Zahn), who used to be a submarine crew, suggested that the ship be sailed in shallow water near the shore All lights were turned off to avoid being ambushed by Russian submarines; the more experienced captain Friedrich Petersen took a different view and decided to sail the ship out of deep water. When he learned from the radio that the German minesweeper was approaching oncoming, Peterson decided to turn on the red and green navigation lights on the ship to avoid a collision. But this wrong decision exposed the position of the William Gustrov at night.

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The Russian Death-class submarine led by Maliannis Gao died 13 and ventured to Danzig Bay, ignored by the Germans Looking for a good opportunity for meritorious service, he was found on the sea 30 kilometers offshore between Grossendorf (Władysławowo, today’s Władysławowo) and Leba (Leba, now known as Leba) After reading the whereabouts of the William Gustrov and the Lion, at 9 pm local time, Hitler made a speech on the radio on the 12th anniversary of the obsession. Soon after the end of the speech, Malini Nisgaard ordered to tell him what he thought was a warship. The William Gustrov launched four torpedoes, and the four torpedoes were written in Russian:

“For the motherland”,”For the great forest”,”For the Russian masses” and”For the Ningrad”.

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Except for the one torpedo that says”For the Dahlin” was stuck in the launch tube, all the other three hit the target. The first hit the bow of the port side, the second got into the swimming pool located in the middle of the hull, and the third hit the engine room at the stern. The passengers near the explosion point were killed instantly, including the female medical staff crowded in the swimming pool. Other passengers on the ship heard loud explosions. What followed was the panic of the passengers on board.

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Some refugees flocked to lifeboats and vie for life jackets. In the chaos, some life-saving equipment fell into the sea. Some people were drowned by the influx of sea water, some were trampled to death or crushed to death on the stairs or on the deck during a panic, and some passengers jumped into the cold water to freeze to death. The average temperature of the Baltic sea in January was 4 degrees Celsius, but that day was a particularly severe cold day, the temperature was only -10 to -18 degrees Celsius, and there were floating ice on the sea. There are reports that some children and babies have been separated from their families in the chaos, and some children have been drowned in the water due to improper adult life jackets.

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50 minutes after being hit by a torpedo, the William Gustrov finally sank to a depth of 45 meters. After that, the German army sent ships to search and rescue.

The numbers studied by Heinz Xiongen estimated that the number of people killed in the shipwreck was approximately 9,330, making it the worst shipwreck in the history of the world’s navigation.

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Irwin Kappes (Irwin Kappes) in”The Greatest Marine Disaster in History… and why you probably never heard”of it” mentioned that the William Gustrov was carrying more than 6,000 passengers. 15 minutes after the incident, the torpedo boat Lion arrived and tried to rescue the survivors. On the cruise ship Admiral Hipper carrying 1,500 refugees, the captain Henigst, after receiving a torpedo attack from the observation deck, still chose to continue his adventure to rescue the survivors from the sea. Kabis actually pointed out that the death toll in the shipwreck should be 5,348, but he did not mention the source of the relevant information in the book.

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In Shen En’s study, different methods were used to estimate the number of victims. The Discovery Channel program”Unsolved History” (Unsolved History) used computer software based on witness reports on ship load density, simulated escape routes, and survival rates over time after the shipwreck. The estimated number of people killed was 9,400. (Calculated based on the original 10,600 passengers).

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In World War II, many ships carrying civilians were sunk in the Allied and Axis powers. Among them was William Gust The Love was the most tragic, becoming the shipwreck with the most casualties in history. In an interview with the New York Times on April 8, 2003, the 1999 Nobel Prize in Literature, King Tegras mentioned that one of the reasons that made him write”Crab Action” was that he was dissatisfied with the words and deeds of some Germans, saying that William Gu The Stroff incident was a war crime. He didn’t think so. He believed that this incident was just the tragic result of the war.

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The sinking location of the William Gustrov is at 55.07 degrees north latitude and 17.41 degrees east longitude on the seabed in Włady, Poland Władysławowo (Władysławowo) to the west, Leba (Łeba) to the east, 30 kilometers offshore. The sea area near the shipwreck is designated as a war memorial site, marked with”obstacle No. 73″ on the Polish nautical chart.

In 2006, a bell on the ship was salvaged and used as a seafood restaurant in Poland. The decoration was later loaned to the exhibition”Forced Path” in Berlin.

The author of”Crab Walking” is Günter Glass, this book is based on the William Gustrov incident.

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Günter Wilhelm Glass (October 16, 1927-April 13, 2015), German writer, born In the Free City of Danzig (today Gdansk, Poland), he was also the winner of the 1999 Nobel Prize in Literature. He is widely regarded as one of Germany’s most famous writers. He received the Georg Büchner Prize in 1965 and was elected an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Letters in 1993. He received the Hermann Kesten Prize in 1995.

Gunte William Glass’s most famous work is”The Tin Drum”, which It is a representative work of European magical realism and the first work of Danzig’s trilogy (the other two works are”Cat and Mouse” and”Dog Year and Month”). His works have a strong color of Zhizhi and are considered to have a left-wing tendency, and he is also a supporter of the German masses. The Swedish Academy awarded him the 1999 Nobel Prize for Literature, believing that he”drew the historical face of mankind’s forgotten history with tragic fables in play.”

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He was born on October 16, 1927 in Danzig City, his father was William Glass (1899-1979), he was a German Protestant. His mother Helen (Nov) Glass (1898 to 1954) believed in Roman Catholicism, and his ancestors were descendants of Kashubians and Poles. Gunter William Glass grew up in a Catholic environment. His parents opened a grocery store in Danzig, and the whole family lived in an apartment. He has a younger sister who was born in 1930.

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Gunt William Glass once entered the Danzig liberal arts high school Conradinum. He became the Air Force Volunteer Child Army in 1943, and then he was drafted into the Reichsarbeitsdienst. In November 1944, shortly after his 17th birthday, he voluntarily invited Ying to enter the German Navy as a submarine soldier. “He felt that as a teenager, he walked out of the limits of his parents’ house.” He believed that the Catholic middle class was too boring. . However, the navy did not want to recruit Grasse, so he joined the Frenzberg Armored Division of the 10th Army. He participated in the battle from February 1945 to April 20, 1945, until he was injured. He was captured in Marianske Lazne and sent to an American prisoner of war camp. Danzig was occupied by the Russian rogue army, and then Russia annexed Poland and expelled the Germans from the territory. Gunter William Glass was unable to return home, so he had to live in a shelter in West Germany.

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In 2006, he revealed that he had been a member of a certain squad of armed forces, which caused widespread controversy among the public. In an interview with reporters, he revealed that he was drafted into an armed squad in late 1944. At that time, young people could join a certain army instead of a regular armed army (the German Wehrmacht), although Günter Wilhelm Glass’s army was like an ordinary armored division.

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In 1946 and 1947, Glass worked in the mines and received training in stone-cutting art. Over the years, he studied sculpture and photography. He first studied at the Düsseldorf Art Academy and then at the Berlin University of the Arts. Glass is a writer, graphic designer, and sculptor, so he travels a lot. From 1983 to 1986, he was the owner of the Berlin Academy of Arts (Akademie der Künste).

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On April 13, 2015, Gunter Grass died of infection in Lübeck at the age of 87.

Gunter William Glass was married in 1954 and has been living since 1960 In Berlin, he sometimes lives in Schleswig-Holstein (Schleswig-Holstein). He divorced in 1978, but remarried in 1979.

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Gunt William Glass was an active mass movement during the administration of Willy Brandt, the head of West Germany Family. Günter William Glass criticized the radicals on the left and favored”snail-like peace”, as he called reformism. In the 1980s, he became an active peaceful mover, having visited Kolkata for six months.

During the reunification of Germany, Gunter Wilhelm Glass supported the two Germans Accompanying, think that the unified German must once again become a militant nation-state.

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In 2001, Gunter Wilhelm Glass proposed the establishment of a German-Polish Art Museum. The works of art required to be returned under the Hague Convention of 1907 have been scattered or stolen.

On April 4, 2012, Glass’s poem”What Should I Say” Published in several European newspapers. In this poem, he expressed that Israel may use equipment to launch nuclear warheads against Iran. He hoped that many people would demand that”Iran and the Israeli government allow free and open international authority to inspect potential nuclear weapons production capabilities.” The Israeli government therefore declared him an unpopular figure in Israel.

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On April 26, 2012, he wrote a poem criticizing Europe’s response to Greece’s European sovereign debt crisis. Greece is called”the shame of Europe” in poems.

“Xing Xing” is a German writer Günter who won the Nobel Prize in Literature Glass, a novel published in 2002, is related to the sinking of the William Gustloff cruise ship during the period of Zizui. Like Günter Grass’s previous works, the novel focuses on the influence of many previous events, and the novel combines many facts and fiction. Although the murder of William Gustloff by David Frankfurt and the sinking of the cruise ship William Gustloff are real events, the fictional Pokriefke family brought these events into different time contexts.